الناشر: دار السراج للثقلفة والنشر
تاريخ الإصدار: 2018-03
Sheikh Akram Barakat, PhD.
الناشر: دار السراج للثقلفة والنشر
تاريخ الإصدار: 2018-03
Sheikh Akram Barakat, PhD.
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
have good knowledge of the true religion and are well acquainted with the students. The lecturers were the choice of the deanery studies of the Islamic University and I was privileged for being assigned with the task of recording and preparation.
“Ghulamun Laqinun Thaqifun (A lad prone to digestion and education),” which means a lad of acumen and brightness.(1) Another example reads, “Rajulun Thaqifun (A cultured man),” which means he digests whatever he hears with straightness.(2)
the linguistic connotations concerning education addresses two aspects. One is cognitive relating to high ability of perception. The second is behavioral relating to cultivation and education while both link to man on one hand and to the material on the other hand.
Based on such definition, the following outcomes become obvious:
book represents our attempt to approach the subject through several keys that the religion of Islam addressed and as the university curriculum allows. We hope that it will benefit our dear students and we hope that Allah the Exalted will accept such service of ours.
The Human Natural Inclination towards Perfection
The holy Quran presents that which a human considers a perfection that can achieve happiness during its consecutive life stages. Allah the Exalted said, “Know that the life of the world is only play, and idle talk, and pageantry, and boasting among you, and rivalry in respect of wealth and children…”(1)
if man handled the possession of all that exists in this life. Why? Not all that exists in this life expresses the true and flawless perfection. This sort of perfection belongs to the one and only, Allah, the lord of the worlds. The holy Quran confirms that the happiness of a human being can only be achieved once it marches towards Allah Who is perfect and transcends above all flaws. Thereon, its soul will calm down, its heart will find rest, and it will experience the aspired happiness. To this issue the words of Allah the Exalted guided us reading, "Verily in the remembrance of Allah hearts do find rest!"(1)
partners ye ascribed unto Him."(1)
to which our nature attracts us, the Wise Creator explained it for us. The holy Quran stressed on this issue telling that the way that leads a person to his perfection based on such nature is the religion, which remains to be the divine teachings.(1) Allah the Exalted said, "So set thy purpose (O Muhammad) for religion as a man by nature upright - the nature (framed) of Allah, in which He hath created man. There is no altering (the laws of) Allah’s creation."(2)
Religion and Knowledge
Religion and Behavior
necessary knowledge pertaining the secret and aim behind its existence. A just obligation refers to the science of ethics that clarifies the values that the human being must consider during its course on the path to its perfection. An existing tradition simply refers to the laws explained by the science of jurisprudence, which will lead the human being adhering to them to his happiness, individually and communally, and in the manner that conforms to his body and soul in this world and the afterworld.
quoted as saying, "Science is three things: Jurisprudence regarding the religions; medicine regarding the bodies; and grammar regarding the tongue."(1)
The Four Stages of Humanity
Human Reality amid the Body and Soul
The World of Death (the dead)
of the fetus which, on assuming it is given the force of understanding and dialogue, if asked: What is the size of the world in your eyes? It would answer: It equals the size of the womb of my mother. Then it is told that a bigger world exists outside the womb of your mother, more spacious with all kinds of delicious food and fun games. However, the fetus believes neither in better food than that of the blood of his mother nor in better games than his rotation inside his mother’s womb or in more spacious world than the womb. Therefore, when the midwife begins the process of extraction by force and on seeing the size of the outside world and its situation outside the womb, the baby screams out of surprise.
The Day of Judgment
will live a pleasant life. But as for him whose scales are light; a bereft and Hungry One will be his mother; Ah, what will convey unto thee what she is! - Raging Fire."(1)
· The hellfire on the other hand, its food is described as, "The food of the sinner! Like molten brass, it seetheth in their bellies. As the seething of boiling water."(1) Its drink is described as, "Water like to molten lead which burneth the faces the seething of boiling water."(2) And its raiment is described as, "…garments of fire…"(3)
the world for the sake of humanity. We can read this issue in several verses of the Quran.
The Correct Relationship with the World
Life and the Afterlife
Allah the Exalted created man for the sake of his happiness that can be achieved when he takes the way to his integration. However, man alone cannot recognize the landmarks of such way. Therefore, the Omni-Wise and Creator guided him to these landmarks through the messages that he revealed to His prophets (pbut). These messages came consecutive based on the progression of the human societies until Allah the Exalted concluded them with the holy Quran.
Secondly – It is an Everlasting Miracle
Say: Then bring ten surahs, the like thereof, invented, and call on everyone ye can beside Allah, if ye are truthful!"(1) It even challenged them to produce the like of one verse. Allah the Exalted said, "Or say they: He hath invented it? Say: Then bring a surah like unto it, and call (for help) on all ye can besides Allah, if ye are truthful."(2)
nothing excels it and it crushes that which is beneath it."(1)
3. The Human History, First Man and the End Of Times
them as are apparent and such as are within, and sin and wrongful oppression…"(1)
precedence or superiority does not depend on sex, race, family, money, prestige or authority. Instead, it depends on perfections that are available for all people. Allah the Exalted explained these perfections saying:
life and never wrote a script. The holy Quran provided this issue without anyone’s protest. Allah the Exalted said, "And thou (O Muhammad) wast not a reader of any scripture before it, nor didst thou write it with thy right hand, for then might those have doubted, who follow falsehood."(1)
2- The Law of Gravity
4- The Lack of Oxygen in High Altitudes
Allah the Exalted said, "Thinketh man that We shall not assemble his bones? Yea, verily. We are Able to restore his very fingers!"(1) The modern science in the nineteenth century discovered that fingerprints are the most complicated parts of the human body. Therefore, it became one of the tools of identification, distinguishing one individual from another.(2)
without [his own] recitation Allah will dictate for him a good deed, remove from him a bad deed, and will take him one grade up."(1)
Pondering the Meanings of the Quran
The Prophetic Sunnah
actions will mirror his sayings. For example, if he embarks on any act, this act at minimum remains unforbidden. His decision, meaning his silence, concerning an incident in his presence mirrors the same verdict. In other words, an incident happening in his presence remains unforbidden, otherwise, he (pbuh&hh) would have intercepted as an act of forbidding it.
hence she would ask: O messenger of Allah: why tire yourself when Allah the Exalted forgave thee of thy sin that which is past and that which is to come? He (pbuh&hh) replied, "Lo! Should I not be a thankful servant?"(1) The accounts report as well that Allah the Exalted, due to his hardworking servitude, inspired him with the words, "Ta. Ha. We have not revealed unto thee (Muhammad) this Qur’an that thou shouldst be distressed."(2)
a neighbor is like one’s own mother."(1) In addition, Imam Ali (pbuh&hh) was quoted as saying, "Beware Allah concerning your neighbors; they are the trust of your prophet. He continued commanding me to care for them to the point where I thought he wanted to bequeath them."(2)
them with his own hand.(1) During a journey with his companions, they started preparing a sheep for food; the story reads, "A man said: messenger of Allah, I will slaughter it. Another said: I will skin it. Another said: I will cook it. And he (pbuh&hh) said: I will collect the firewood. They said: messenger of Allah, we suffice instead of you. He (pbuh&hh) said: I know you suffice instead of me. However, I hate to be distinguished from you; Allah hates his servant to be distinguished among his companions. Hence, he rose and collected the firewood."(2)
· Kind to his dissenters. In Makkah for example, the infidels stoned him until he bled. His wife Lady Khadijah (RIP) told him: May I shield you with my father and mother. Let the blood feed the ground. He (pbuh&hh) said: "I fear that the Lord of the land might anger with those on it."(1) Moreover, in the city of Taif, the people followed him and caused his bleeding. Yet, he would say: "My Allah, guide my people for they do not know."(2)
· Kind to the animal. Abul Rahman Bin Abdullah was quoted as saying, "We were accompanying the Messenger of Allah on a journey. After the prophet went to relieve nature, we saw a bird with two chicks. We grabbed the two chicks, the bird started flapping, and spreading its wings. Suddenly the Prophet (pbuh&hh) arrived and said, ‘Who caused this one to suffer the loss of its child. Give her child back to her." (1)
this world whereas Allah testified that it is scant as He said, ‘Say (unto them, O Muhammad): The comfort of this world is scant’(1). Therefore, how could I describe to you the nature of the Prophet (pbuh&hh) when Allah the Exalted described it to be tremendous as He said, ‘And lo! Thou art of a tremendous nature’(2)."(3)
Who Guarded the Prophetic Tradition?
The ideology of the Shiite Imamate addressed this issue saying that guarding the Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition) has been achieved through the preparation of an exceptional individual who had to grasp the knowledge of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh&hh) and preserve his Noble Sunnah as well as guard the original religion. This person was Imam Ali (pbuh), a worthy individual of receiving the special prophetic teachings. This was the secret behind the non-stop adherence of Imam Ali (pbuh) to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh&hh). Imam Ali (pbuh) would describe it saying, "I would follow him like the young camel that follows the tracks of its mother."(1) This was also the secret behind his words, "If I ask him he would respond and if I withhold ending my questions he would address me first."(2) The accounts confirmed that this special tuition was due to the divine commandment. Abu Na’eem Al-Hafiz Ash-Shafe’ei (430 AH) narrated quoting Allah’s messenger (pbuh&hh) to have said,
comes with the Prophet (pbuh&hh) saying, "I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate."(1)
Ahlul Bayt (pbut) Role in Converging the Islamic Sects
"No eye ever seen, no ear ever heard, and no human mind ever imagined someone better than Ja’far Bin Muhammad pertaining to knowledge, worship and godliness."(1)
creditor, the dutiful and the villain, long prostration, and good neighborliness. Muhammad (pbuh&hh) came with these issues. Pray with their clans, attend their funerals, visit their ill, and pay their rights; if the one of you acts with piety regarding his religion and speaks the truth, return the trust and behave to the people, it would be said: this is a Shiite; and this pleases me."(1)
Following the great sacrifice of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh&hh) with the support of his infallible household (pbut) and his noble companions (RIP) for the sake of establishing the religion and justice, a historic carnage took place in 61 A.H. It was the time when the grandson of Allah’s messenger (pbuh&hh), Imam Al-Hussein (pbuh), the son of Ali (pbuh), rose in Karbala, sacrificing himself and most of those whom he accompanied of his household and companions. The bloodiest scenes took place mirroring all that contradicts with humanity. After the carnage, his women were taken into captivity, including the granddaughter of the noblest messenger (pbuh&hh), the daughter of the sons of Hashim, Zeinab the daughter of Ali (pbuh&hh).
these sacrifices managed to immortalize the revolution as a method of life from which people, regardless of their origins, managed to extract the best merits and values.
the sacred blood."(1)
Sheikh Muhammad Hussein Aal Kashif Al-Ghataa said, "If it were not for the rise of Hussein (pbuh) and his companions (RIP) on the day of the battle, no pillar of Islam would have risen or a branch would have become green."(1)
serious existed in the changing of the concepts and laws. In his speech to the army of Al-Horr Bin Yazid Al-Riyahi that surrounded him and forced him to go to Karbala, Imam Al-Hussein (pbuh) confirmed this issue as being the reason for his revolution. There, he (pbuh) said to them, "Lo! These people dedicated their obedience to the wicked whereas abandoned submission to the Merciful… They made the lawful of Allah unlawful and His unlawful lawful."(1)
against people using death threat, killing, burning houses, plundering capitals. In Makkah and Medina they killed thirty thousand people let alone others burnt by fire.(1) On the other hand, the citizens of Kufa were murdered and buried beneath each stone and soil. Their extremities were separated, eyes blinded, crucified on palm trees, with a large number expelled from Iraq.(2) Some historians mentioned that fifty thousands have been displaced from Kufa.(3)
Muslim Community on the Eve of Revolution
will encounter nothing but spears and swords’ edges."(1) Moreover, Al-Farazdaq describes to Imam Al-Hussein (pbuh) the situation of the citizens of Kufa saying, "Their hearts support you but their swords are against you."(2)
Planning the Revolution
Most of them were young. Besides, there were old men with others whose ages varied, fifties to sixties. There were also children whose ages were more than ten years, or less than ten years.(1) Companions of the messenger of Allah (pbuh&hh) were amongst them such as Anas Bin Al-Harith, Muslim Bin Awsajah, and scholars and reciters of the Quran such as Burair Bin Fudail, plus leaders of security and military apparatuses such as Al-Horr Bin Yazid Ar-Riyahi who was a military commander. There were also Hallas Bin Omar Ar-Rasibi, a former police chief plus chiefs of tribes like Habib Bin Muthahir as well as high ranking social characters like Nafei’ Bin Hilal. John the servant was also attendant.
be acquainted with the household of Muhammad (pbuh&hh)."(1)
He described this issue saying, "Allah willed that He sees me killed and that He sees the women captured."(1) Why? The women played a prominent role in delivering the values and aims of the revolution to the people afterwards. This issue can be clearly seen in the speeches and words of Lady Zeinab (pbuh) and Fatimah the daughter of Hussein (pbuh) plus others in Kufa, the Levant and Medina. This mirrored great influence upon the nation, causing it to wake up from its hibernation.
values of the revolution and the establishment of its aims. At this point, people were encouraged to visit the tomb of Imam Al-Hussein (pbuh), recite Hussein-related poems, and wear black as an expression of reacting with this revolution.
One’s belief that Allah the Exalted created the human being for the purpose of perfection that leads to happiness draws a question concerning this aim. Does this issue refer only to the perfection of the human individual? Alternatively, does the wisdom of Allah the Exalted necessitate that the aim behind the creation of man be in the integration of the human community in the form that ends with a path where this community should witness a complete scene through which the happiness of all humanity will be accomplished? It is obvious – based on the observation of the present situations of the human communities and their history – that tyranny and corruption are spreading. Therefore, will this issue remain in this form until the end of the world? Alternatively, does the wisdom of Allah the Exalted necessitate that He concludes the future of all humanity in the form that will accomplish the happiness of all people by spreading justice and virtuous values, long longed for by the free people of the world?
3- The Savior in Hinduism
5- The Savior in the Belief of the Ancient Greeks
2. "Allah hath promised such of you as believe and do good work that He will surely make them to succeed (the present rulers) in the earth even as He caused those who were before them to succeed (others); and that He will surely establish for them their religion which He hath approved for them, and will give them in exchange safety after their fear. They serve Me. They ascribe no thing as partner unto Me."(1)
injustice and wrongdoing."(1) In addition, the collection of the Prophetic Tradition (Sunan Abi Dawood) quotes Saeed Bin Al-Masib to have quoted Umm Salamah saying: I heard the messenger of Allah saying, "Al-Mahdi derives from my progeny, from the children of Fatimah."(2)
The Age of Al-Mahdi, Milestones of Civilized Development
fortunes of the world. For example, Abu Saeed Al-Khidri was quoted quoting the Prophet (pbuh&hh) to have said, "I give you good tidings of Al-Mahdi. He will be sent while my nation disagrees with the people coupled with quakes; and he will fill the earth with equity and justice as it has been filled with tyranny and wrongdoing. The residents of the skies will be pleased with him, as will be the residents of the earth. He divides the money truly. A man asks: What does truly mean? He (pbuh&hh) says: equally among the people."(1) Imam as-Sadiq (pbuh) describes the situation of the societies at the time of Al-Mahdi saying, "…And the man of you seeks someone who could tax his money and take from his charity, but none is to be found who could accept it from him. The people are satisfied with what Allah had provided them of his generosity."(2)
Imam Al-Mahdi (may Allah hasten his advent), as indicated by the Prophetic Tradition, is the security that overwhelms the world in its entirety. At the beginning of the previous story of Sheikh Al-Mufid, one can read, "If Al-Qaem(1) rises he will rule with justice, lift oppression, and with him all ways will be secure."(2) Moreover, Imam Al-Baqir (pbuh) was quoted as saying, "…Even the old and weak woman departs the east aiming for the west with no one obstructing her."(3)
was quoted as saying, "…And the people embark upon worship, religious law, religion, and praying in groups."(1)
-Qaem, let him wait (in anticipation)."(1) In this sense, the words of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh&hh) have been explained, "The best deeds of my nation is in anticipating relief."(2) Another Prophetic Tradition reads, "Waiting relief is a worship."(3)
3- Insight and Awareness. Imam Al-Baqir (pbuh) described the group that survives following affliction and riddle as, "Untouched by the sedition."(1) They enjoy insight and awareness that shield them; hence, they do not deviate from righteousness.
The White (Pure) Heart
1- Cruelty of the heart. Imam Ali (pbuh) was quoted as saying, "Tears dry simply because of the cruelty of the hearts; and hearts become cruel simply because of the increasing sins."(1)
Prophet (pbuh&hh) was quoted as saying, "One hour of contemplation is better than one year of worship."(1)
other one. Where can I reside when to Him belongs the East and the West and all that is between them?
Imam Al-Hussein (pbuh) said: "If the guards of hell arrive on the Day of Judgment to take you to hell, do not go with them."
inform us that Allah the Exalted obliged Himself to accept the quick repentance following the sin out of ignorance.
tone of justice. Instead, He uses the tone of compassion to the limit where the repenter becomes dear to Allah the Exalted. The holy Quran stipulated this issue when Allah the Exalted said, "Truly Allah loveth those who turn unto Him…"(1) Therefore, the Noble Prophet (pbuh&hh) was quoted as saying, "Allah is happier at the repentance of His slave than a barren person fathering, a loss being found, and a thirsty person arriving to water."(2)
hath given us speech Who giveth speech to all things, and Who created you at the first, and unto Whom ye are returned."(1)
Time Limit Concerning the Acceptance of Repentance
The Program of Repentance
Worship is the Aim of Creation
seen him who chooseth for his god his own lust?"(1) A servant who serves his lust becomes submissive and humiliated to it. This is why he becomes disobedient towards his Lord. Acting with leniency towards lust associates disobedience towards Allah the Exalted.
called that there be agreement between Muslims and the people of the Scripture, the worshipping of Allah the Exalted without worshipping the humankind. Allah the Exalted said, "Say: O People of the Scripture! Come to an agreement between us and you: that we shall worship none but Allah, and that we shall ascribe no partner unto Him, and that none of us shall take others for lords beside Allah."(1)
appoint a way out for him… And will provide for him from (a quarter) whence he hath no expectation."(1)
worship. On the other hand, Allah the Exalted explained the aim of piety when he said, "So be mindful of your duty to Allah, O men of understanding, that ye may succeed."(1) Success means being triumphant and winning that, which brings comfort in this life and the afterlife.
the greater struggle? He (pbuh&hh) said: Struggling against the soul."(1)
The stomach can fast for Allah the Exalted or consume the forbidden food.
These two forces can be a source of goodness. With the first, the human race can continue. With the second, the human being can defend itself and its country. They can also be a source of evil. With the first, adultery can happen; and with the second killing unjustly can happen. Therefore, each of the camp of the Beneficent and that of Satan will try to attract these two forces.
can lead the human to happiness. Based on this issue, when a certain matter is offered to someone, he must consider its outcome, consequence, and decide how to act in light of such consideration. The Noble Prophet (pbuh&hh) stressed on this issue in his commandment to someone. It reads, "When…deciding on an issue consider its sequel."(258) At this point, the intellect becomes the ruling power concerning the human internal forces through which man can control the seven organs of the body.
Allah the Exalted. If he violated any term he should ask forgiveness from Allah the Exalted and seek His pardon with his willingness to repeat practicing conditionality, observation, and accountability on the following day. He must act in this form each day without any despair even if the sin repeated on his part. Adhering to such program can be sufficient in helping man open the gates of success and happiness.
and a part for himself, which he divides between him and the people and answers the common and the private without keeping anything from them."(1)
Viewing and dealing with the others depend on the background of the viewer towards the other person. This issue can relate to the formation such as sex, color and age, or to the social class such as the financial status and position, or to the national and tribal affiliation, or to the ideology such as the faith that a person embraces, or to the practical behavior that a person sustains.
The teachings of the Prophet (pbuh&hh) came in order to stress on the positivity concerning the girl among the children.
end racial distinction in one simple and comprehensive word: ‘A Muslim is a Brother of a Muslim.’ He resolved the issue in three words (referring to the Arabic). On the other hand, today, the racial issue is a reason for holding tens of conferences and writing hundreds of books, without any benefit. I am certain the solution will only come in the next century. However, Muhammad resolved it thirteen centuries ago."(1)
providence and patience and that the rich and the poor regard not each other based on the view of advantage and disadvantage. Instead, there is a rule that the commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (pbuh) mentioned. It reads, "It is not asceticism that you should not possess anything; rather, asceticism is that nothing should possess you."(1)
derive and the hand (power) with which you attack."(1) However, he rejected the criterion that sets the kinsfolk to be the issue that defines superiority and the right attitude.
Whereas paganism dispraised the noble Abu Lahab(1)
from failure and fragility and unmade by the ignorant person, it remains an excuse with respect to Allah the Exalted."(1)
being concerning his tenet manifests in the following four conditions:
Third condition: That he initially lacks or does not lack the knowledge yet did not search for the truth because of his conviction in that which contrasts with the true faith.
punishment of the denier, there are religious scripts that pointed to this issue also.
inside Hell. The house protected him from its hotness and his sustenance came from other than it (the fire). He was told this was because you used to bring upon your faithful neighbor friendliness with kindness in the previous world."(1)
Islam explained the structure of the correct relationship with the others through the words of Imam Ali (pbuh) when he described the people as, "Either a brother in religion or an equal in humanity."(1) Based on this rule, Islam invited us to a number of ethics when communicating with the people such as:
The Reward of Serving the Public
science, knowledge or religiousness apparent on him. He asked him about his occupation. The answers were not out of the ordinary. He insisted on knowing details while questioning him in the hope that he will discover the secret behind him being his peer in paradise. Finally, the man told him about an incidence that gave the sign to Imam Sharaf Ed-Dean (RIP) about the reason that will make him his peer in the paradise of Allah the Exalted. The villager told this story. It reads, "In the year 1948, when the Palestinians were displaced from their countries to the Mount of Amil, I went to the front between Lebanon and Palestine. There, I saw among the immigrants two old spouses exhausted from walking. Hence, I carried the old man and took him forward. Then, I returned and carried his wife and took her forward. I repeated the task until I brought them to my residence where I served them." This is how the man earned that he be the peer of the revered scholar.
thou hadst been stern and fierce of heart they would have dispersed from round about thee…"(1)
It is obvious that being insightful is good and favored. However, we must focus on good insight concerning all issues. Therefore, would it be better for a human to be intelligent, sharp and perceptive concerning all his relationships?
as saying, "The crown of the intellect, after believing in Allah, is in managing the people without disregarding any right."(1) Therefore, should you respect the boundaries of righteousness you would be crowning your intellect. This issue was mentioned (as an example) in the reported words of the commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (pbuh), which read, "The title of the intellect is in managing the people."(2)
Moreover, which one of these do you wish to disclose his secret? Should Satan (Allah damn him) whispers telling that you have a favor upon anyone of the people of the Kiblah, you should think and see: If he was older than you say that he advanced me concerning faith and righteous practice; hence, he is better than I am. If his age equaled yours say that I am certain of my guilt and have doubts concerning his; hence, how can I ignore my certainty in favor of my doubt…? If you do so, Allah will ease your life, increase your friends, and you will be joyful when they visit you and will not be sad when they avoid you."(1)
Is he treating me with insolence? Does he hate me? Alternatively, did he not see me as he passed by? My good speculation tells me to think that he did not see me; perhaps he was distracted as he passed by me.
and mental channel, which can be influenced by the backgrounds and internal tendencies of the person that were influenced by his private life, environment and culture. Hence, this issue will mirror itself on the adopted attitude.
clarity of heart…"(1) Besides, Imam Ali (pbuh) was quoted as saying, "Good faith results in the ease of heart."(2)
Islam called upon a series of politeness and good social behavior towards the others such as:
his brothers."(1) Moreover, Imam as-Sadiq (pbuh) was quoted as saying, "Hoarding and frowning faces cause alienation from Allah."(2)
Moreover, the holy Quran called upon exchanging the greeting of a person with the same or with a better one. Allah the Exalted said, "When ye are greeted with a greeting, greet ye with a better than it or return it…"(1)
The accounts of the Noble Tradition confirmed that handshake mirrors positive results such as the removal of the heart negative feelings of the believers towards each other. For example, the Noble Tradition reads, "Shake hands, a handshake removes the rancor of the hearts."(1)
if the one of you cannot find it then by a goodly saying."(1)
who interrupts the conversation of his Muslim speaking brother it is as if he hurts his pride."(1)
brother’s secret is a treason, avoid it."(1)
sit in it."(1) Another Prophetic Tradition reads, "If the one of you attends a session, let him sit where the session ends."(2)
The holy Quran tells us about the magnificent system or order of Allah the Exalted in several verses such as:
in the Hadith (Tradition) concerning the regulation of the human affairs individualistically is in the words quoted from Imam Al-Kathim (pbuh), which read, "Make effort dividing your time into four hours (parts): One hour to secretly converse with Allah. One hour to make a living. One hour to socialize with the trusted brothers who will help you identify your flaws and act with an inward loyalty. And one hour during which you retire to your lusts in an unforbidden manner."(1)
to the pedestrians while on it, such as a person parking his car in the form that causes traffic jam, or a pedestrian throwing objects that cause harm to other pedestrians. The Islamic law forbade this issue; rather, it may necessitate a guarantee of compensation by the ill doer for the harms inflicted. For instance, one report narrates Imam as-Sadiq (pbuh) being asked about an object placed to obstruct the way of the Muslims such as in the case of a riding animal that startles and throws its rider off its back due to an annoying obstacle. He (pbuh) said, "Anything that causes harm to the path of the Muslims, its owner guarantees the compensation for any harm inflicted on him."(1) A person who parks his vehicle in the street and leaves it in the form that causes traffic jam may result in a series of damages that he must consider as a liability, such as:
· The possible increase of illnesses due to such jam, such as tensions relating to the nervous system.
kind and loves kindness, clean and loves cleanliness."(1) Cleanliness is a part of the merits that Islam stressed upon considering that:
(pbut) stressing on the significance of giving attention to the cleanliness of homes with accuracy. We can read this issue in the following sayings:
In another part of the Prophetic Tradition, the Prophet (pbuh&hh) said, "Beware the three curses: Fowling in the resources, shades, and the middle of the road."(1)
Muslim planting a plant that feeds a man, an animal or a bird, will translate a charity in his favor."(1)
6- Water Preservation