الناشر: جمعية المعارف الإسلامية الثقافية

تاريخ الإصدار: 2018-03

النسخة: 0


مركز المعارف للتأليف والتحقيق



Communication in ancient time used to be limited only by delivering oratory, writing letters or copying books; however, today, and due to the massive scientific and technological progress, media have broadened encompassing various types including: print, broadcast and online journalism; such an advancement has also led to worldwide media coverage. Together the worldwide web and TV screens are now the most reliable sources of current affairs, updates and world news. Unfortunately, media industry is almost governed by arrogant holders, whose interests seem to be versus to all human aspects for these holders’ abuse of media availability in order to strictly control the mass. But, how does the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Imam Ali Khamenei perceive today’s media along with its styles and goals? How could media be well-guided so that they become more beneficial serving humanity and religion? ‘Media’ booklet is another publication demonstrating the thought of the Supreme Leader Imam Ali al-Khamenei, may Allah reserve him.

 Nūn Center for Writing and Translation


Chapter One: Media

 Media Significance

In his keynote in the fourth meeting of the Assembly of Experts held on the 2nd of Jamadi the First, in Tehran, Imam Ali al-Khameini tackled the advancement of today’s media as he said:
Today, the most effective and qualified means of communication are media. Newspapers, Radios and TVs have become more effective than books. Newspapers publish what they want; while Radios and TVs make good use of air waves to broadcast whatever they desire, too.”
To media owners, air waves are less rated or charged than books; to mass, they are easily available; whereas to the elite, obstacles in the progress of reading trends. Radios could be listened to during driving or used as a background noise even at work; while reading requires being performed alone with great concentration and in a convenient environment. Thus, all of this has led people to be more attracted to audio-visual media than books. Other obstacles are presented as well due to the lack in the quantity of libraries that can cover the needs of the entire public in the time that books are increasingly becoming unaffordable. 


Chapter One: Media

 Media Aims

Imam Ali al-Khameini states that media should serve in spreading the correct Islamic thought as well as in raising and reforming the ethical, social and intellectual public awareness in a society. He believes that the desired goals of media could be accomplished through tackling moral issues in films, for example; for through which indirect messages could be skillfully embedded in order to be easily absorbed.
"People working in media industry should be involved in directing media to be able to make the reform of the general intellectual frame in society. Together, media and institutions, specialized in spreading Islam religion, should work in parallel to accomplish such a goal. Film productions should be made to serve the general Islamic intellectual reforms. Radios and TVs should always work on the favor of the public culture." (1) 
Biased Media
Media industry is the spot of concern of investors who are abusing it through rendering it to be serving their corrupted and low standard desires and aims. On the top of these investing world powers, USA and ‘Zionism’ lie  monopolizing and running many of world media, and, as a result, misleading humanity with fabricated facts, sending their own indirect and embedded messages, and attacking their opponent countries that may affect their world dominance. Imam Ali al-Khameini, May Allah reserve him, tries to ring alarms for the malicious roles played by these powers in our countries and societies as he sheds the light on three of these powers’ tactics.

(1)           Al-Zaman newspaper, issued on Safar 11, 1416 Hegira.


Chapter One: Media

 Doubts Creation

World powers work on creating doubts as they keep reversing facts or inventing deceptive arguments around points of strength found in Islamic ruling systems; that is why they are attacking the very concept of the top- jurist guardianship (known as al-Walie al-Faqih), and other officials questioning their seriousness in serving their community, in addition to that, they also target key uniting issues that would help in getting the whole Islamic nation united. 
"Dear, you should be aware that among the first things that world powers’ media work on against other countries are creating doubts about the credibility of the centers that are really truthful and transparent, along with the local media that say the truth, and the official personalities who are faithful and religiously committed; in addition to that, they work on fabricating accusations, turning facts just upside down, deviating rational thinking, and creating hesitations among the public."(1)
One of the world powers’ ways in reversing facts is their adoption of double standard tactic against various democratic systems. To them, capital punishment in one of their allying countries is a ‘merit’ no matter if it is being based on weak and silly reasons- however in any other anti-US elsewhere as the same punishment is claimed to be ‘human rights breach’ despite whether it is being legally justified; in the meantime that massacres committed against victims as are claimed to be labeled as ‘self-defense’; to these powers, a nuclear armed existence imposing itself aggressively on other nation’s territories is conversely considered as ‘oppressed’; on the other hand, nations that are attempting to catch and snatch portions of their rights even through throwing a stone (as a

(1)           Speaking in the anniversary of the birthday of Imam al-Hussein, Peace be upon him, the Day of Islamic Revolution Guards and the Day of Mobilization (al-Ta’bia’).


Chapter One: Media

 type of resistance) as "top-terrorists". 

"According to US and Zionist media, executing a number of Iranians who had been caught while smuggling heroin is ‘human rights-breach’; while kidnapping citizens, shooting displaced people, and bombarding their villages have nothing to do with human rights!"(1)
Culture Pollution
Western media always work on polluting the cultures of other countries; this tactic is extremely dangerous, for it may lead some native people to sacrifice their culture on the behalf of the others’- and once such a sacrifice takes place, the entire nation is said to be losing its upgrading position among powerful countries. Western media intentionally host speakers talking day and night weaving doubts and question marks around religious and social issues, which, in fact, go on with human nature, traditions and preservative principles in general; and ascribing (this set of beliefs and traditions) as being ‘retarded’. On the other hand, they keep fabricating images presenting their countries with great perfectness, which is beyond reality, in order to derive youths’ attention from any Islamic model that truly helps in providing human happiness. 
"Most of the political and informational noise created by western media aims at disturbing the atmosphere in our countries, and generating cultural pollution; they think that, by doing so, they would hide the real circumstances that have led to the occurring events or would make all of current and domestic needs be forgotten; in sum, they would like to make people mentally busy."(2)

(1)  Speaking during Hajj in 1419 Hegira as quoted by al-Zaman newspaper, issued on Thu al-Hojjah, 1, 1419 Hegira.
(2)  Speaking in a meeting with the leaders and members of the Iranian army air forces


Chapter One: Media

 Media, Religious Message Complementarily

No matter how effective the role of media in providing guidance and consultation, yet this role can never be as effective as that of the divine spirit and presence of a religious scholar speaking in a mosque before the whole physical and spiritual presence of his audience. In this sense, Imam Ali al-Khameini points out to two correlated points: 
Media, Religious Oratory Necessity 
"None of the creative informing styles of media is capable of replacing the act of religious oratory. Moreover, neither media nor religious oratory may suffice the role of the other. Media, in particular, is not able to suffice any of religious oratory’s methods or styles."(1) 
In the era of media, neither religious oratory is sufficiently able to perform its complete role in founding the religious fundamentals of the entire society and consequently building it; nor are media minimally (without the help of religious scholars or mosques) able to perform a complete task. Actually, together, they structure a harmonious relation. Imam Ali al-Khameini says:
"Religious oratory is still greatly effective as it has always been. No one should imagine that the presence of Radios, TVs, or any other modern media could replace the role of the platform of religious communication, or say that religious speeches’ old methods have become unacceptable today. Human words in direct public speaking leave their impact upon listeners especially while tackling a suitable

(1)  Speaking in the beginning of the academic year of the Islamic Scientific School (Al-Hawaza al-‘Ilmiyah)Quoted by al-Zaman newspaper, issued in Rabie’ al-Awwal, 1413 Hegira.


Chapter One: Media

 topic- this influence has a different taste from media styles since it’s divinely blessed; this style of face-to-face talking has its immense importance!"(1)

Religious Coaching to Develop Media:
Religious oratory may direct the strategic trends of media; thus it could be said that it actually plays a supporting and guiding role in a way that both of them (media and religious oratory) may benefit from each other. Media may benefit in particular from speeches delivered in especial Islamic anniversaries. Imam Ali al-Khameini says:
"Let one of the goals set for religious schooling and coaching be improving Islamic media in order to enable them to guide people."(2)
Freedom of Media
Freedom of media has always been controversial. However, western media usually finds this slogan useful when it desires to attack Islamic countries and accuse them claiming that these countries are ‘tightening’ their local press freedom. Imam Ali al-Khameini says:
"Press may raise awareness on public responsibility; it may also ring alarms reminding officials about their great tasks; otherwise, and due to keeping the both sides’ duties unexposed, press may turn to be misleading both sides and thus creating and stirring ambiguity, chaos, division, and tension."(3)
As defined by Imam al-Khameini, freedom of media helps in harmonizing the civilized building and forming of a country,

(1)  Addressing media professionals, quoted by al-Zaman newspaper, issued on tho-al-Hijjah 3, 1414
(2)  Same event footnoted 6
(3)  Speaking in a meeting with the leaders and members of the Iranian Army Air Forces


Chapter One: Media

 the issue that helps media be working on supplying both the officials along with the public with information and views that aim at shedding light at wrongness and correcting the overall situation. However, being given this portion of freedom does not indicate that media are to be free in abusing this right in creating corruption, insulting holy places and figures, or degrading people’s dignity. Actually, there’s big difference between these two kinds of freedom. He says:

"The task of press is in itself an ultimate goal that requires accomplishing means, which is freedom. Freedom must be the means of press as it is performing its task. Thus, press must never become a victim of an absolute or unchained freedom."(1)
Western media’s claimed ‘Freedom’
Western media boast of by their illusionary slogans, including ‘freedom of press’, to the extent that they dare insult Prophet Muhammad, May Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him and his Household; while they flip earth upside down if doubts raised questioning the very existence of the claimed ‘Nazi’s holocaust’. Imam Ali al-Khameini says:
"According to the standard called ‘ freedom of press’, designed by western media, none is supposed to express denies or doubts on the legendary of ‘Jews holocaust’; however, this same standard allows them to insult the holy places and figures of more than one and a half milliard Muslims."(2)
Imam al-Khameini speaks more about western media’s and tyrants’ mentality, which is biased to Jews, through presenting a personal incident that took place during the beginning of the Islamic Revolution in Iran: 


(1)  Same event footnoted 6
(2) Speaking in the event of appointing Ali Larijani the presidency of the Radio-TV Foundation


Chapter One: Media

 "One of Imam Ruhu Allah al-Mousawi al-Khomeini’s press releases had been sent to U.S. media, but none showed readiness to publish it although great deal of money was to be paid if published. Yet, all U.S. media boldly refused publishing it. Actually that’s their claimed ‘freedom’!" (1)


(1) Same event footnoted 10





Chapter Two: Audio-Visual Media


Audio-Visual media are the most influential means of communication; it is easier for audience to be listening or watching rather than reading. There are hardly inhabited places without one of these two sets of communication, (Radio or TV) or both of them. We have to make good use of their presence as means to reach public intellectual frame through well-set and purposeful strategies without any absurdity, abuse, or low-standard entertainment so that public basics and values will be kept reserved. Imam Ali al-Khameini, May Allah reserve him, expresses his views concerning these two media in particular:
"Generally speaking, and as the late Imam Rouhu Allah al-Mousawai al-Khomeini, May Allah bless him, has said: Radio and TV should be playing an inclusive informing role spreading ethics, religion and Islamic values; educating about the best life style; and updating the latest general ideas and political trends. All of this should be delivered in eloquent and comprehensible language that target different capabilities of both the elite and average public, as well."(1)
Audio-Visual Media General Policy
In his meeting with experts in media, as for example, the 

(1) Speaking in a meeting with the president and the managers of the Radio and Television Foundation.


Chapter Two: Audio-Visual Media

 president and the managers of the Radio and Television Foundation, Imam Ali al Khameini draws their attention to some detailed observations and improving suggestions to help developing media performance and let these structures be on the right Islamic track. Such observation is a result of his careful following of public, governmental and media related matters. In fact, being an adequate follower is one of his qualities.

"Among the most crucial points that should be of your concern while drawing the general strategy and policy of the new administration of the Radio-TV Foundation are: 
1. Determining a definite track of the movement of this foundation. This track is supposed to lead the foundation to achieve excellence in quality rather than in quantity. Excellent and qualified programs are much more important than any expansion in quantity, which comes of second importance at the right moment. Today, media coverage should reach all villages and rural areas. This expansion in coverage should be a priority, now.
2. The entire media system should be checked once again to make necessary modifications and improvements that would lead into having more qualified productions and styles of presentation.
 3. You should take good advantage of academic views and research already available; in the meantime that further scientific and social research. Emphasis should be placed on establishing new Islamic research in depth and at highly professional level- any other weak or personal views, which might be mixed with illusions or superstitions, should be avoided. However, this is only achievable through serious coordination between Islamic Scientific schools (al-Hawzah) and Islamic scholars.


Chapter Two: Audio-Visual Media

 4. Communication systems should be improved to fasten the process of delivering information. Besides that, the language of media should be always eloquent and clear. These are the most important tasks of media, today. 

5.  More attractive and creative elements should be added to Radio-TV programs. In addition to that, contents should be conveying purposeful ethical, social and political messages and presented in the most qualified shots. Any other misleading, low-standard or worthless views must be omitted.
6. Concerning broadcasting music, there are two types of music, one of which is allowed according to Islamic standards and thus choices should be among this permissible type; while the other type, which is forbidden for being playful and of low-standard, must be avoided.
 7. World’s arrogant foreign cultural, informing, and news attack must be always confronted. Such confrontation could not be only achieved through newscasts, but it should rather be available through the entire Radio-TV programs, the other scientific, social and political reports as well as the various cultural and entertaining acting dramas.
8. All media workers should be aware of the real influence of this foreign attack. Its greater influence is leaked through advertisement rather than direct talk shows. This influence must be confronted now by all smart and reasonable ways.(1)

(1) Same event footnoted 12.


Chapter Two: Audio-Visual Media

 Audio-Visual Media Ethics

Human ethics, which are the basics of religion, must be- according to Imam Ali al- Khameini- always presented as a priority in media purposeful propaganda.  
"The ethical identity of a society is its real identity as it is the central issue whereas any other issues are of secondary importance and revolving around this center. Ethics must be of a prioritized concern. Radios and TVs must set plans to spread merits in society; they must clarify them in details and one by one including social individual attitude and discipline, social etiquette, family care, reserving others’ rights and human dignity, common sense, self-dependence, personal and national courage, organization, planning, and satisfaction- which is first ranked merit in a society. The ethical crises encountered nowadays are due to becoming no more aware of natural and instinctive merits, fidelity, piety; no more supporting righteousness, or seeking both internal and external beauty; not avoiding consuming; not choosing chastity, or showing respect to parents and teachers.
These are our merits and Radios and TVs should bear full responsibility in getting them widely spread through tackling them in programs, episodes, talk shows, and reports. You, as media workers and producers, have to behave according to these merits while you are making a phone call even. These merits must never be contradicted or lost." 
Media, Public Religious Commitment
According to Imam Ali al-Khameini, the relation between media and public religious commitment is greatly connected; he contributes the task of upgrading public’s religious knowledge and faith to media. He insists that media should make sure that as they present a debate or doubts about certain Islamic 


Chapter Two: Audio-Visual Media

 values or beliefs, reasonable solutions should be presented in parallel, too, to avoid getting any of these doubts stuck in public minds due to media’s failure in presenting reasonable solutions. 

"What is the role of Radios and TVs concerning people’s religion? What responsibilities should they undertake? There’s a difference between religious knowledge and religious faith, but both of them must be always enforced- and this is the duty of media. Great attention must be paid for not weakening public religious faith or make it shallow or superficial. Don’t rely on excessive emotions as this tactic is fruitless in spreading religious knowledge. Thus, all of your activities must be based upon these guidelines. And now, let’s tackle our main subject about Radio-TV programs in order to be aware of what to do or to avoid; religious programs don’t have only to avoid magnifying or stirring doubts but also to remove all of them. Discussing doubts in the presence of highly faithful group of people may enforce the faith of every member of such a group; but tackling these doubts on air among millions of listeners and viewers may shake the faith of some of them. So discussing doubts on public must be avoided. Getting rid of doubts should be the starting ground of religious talking, which has to be clear, well-expressed, creative and based on correct information because junior learners of Islamic knowledge should be receiving correct information from the beginning. Pupils in elementary classes receive correct information about mathematics, and their knowledge gradually expands based on this correct knowledge; one plus one equals to two, and two plus two equals to four- this is a fact no matter in which mathematical class they are. That’s why  any false information about religion may shake the entire credibility of religion upon realizing truth in later stages; thus, even juniors or ordinary people should be receiving correct knowledge about religion from the beginning."(1)

(1) Same event footnoted 12


Chapter Two: Audio-Visual Media

 Media and Entertainment

Educational and moral guidance should be always associating media programs especially those categorized as entertainment or contests; Imam Ali al-Khameini sees entertainment as a necessary element in media productions but producers should always avoid producing profligate, clowning, vague or guideless contents or rewarding viewer or listener competitors for worthless reasons. 
"Drawing a smile on others’ faces is extremely important; life is unbearable without smiles. Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib, Peace be upon him, says: ‘The cheerfulness of a faithful man is on his face.’ If you can help make your society cheerful, go on, and do it, but let it be well-produced. I don’t mean that your style has not been well-planned; on the contrary, I want to insist that you are on the track, and that you have to peruse. But be careful not to mix between making public laugh and between indecency or profligacy. You should rely on correct means to make public laugh. Jokes or witty comments may drive audience to laugh; but profligate expressions consume utmost but superficial effort to snatch a laugh from audience. The skill of making others laugh is a remarkable art in itself; it helps in demonstrating serious affairs in irony style. Contests come as a part of entertaining programs; they are good but much attention should be paid for their harmful impacts on wording and practice levels, and even on forming unnecessary laughter. Sometimes competitors in contest-based programs, like call-in shows, are given rewards for nothing. One caller has got five million Toman just because he answered some simple questions. His reward was worth the sum of three-year salaries. Some would say that these contests and rewards are educational promotions. Well, this is a harmful and unreasonable way; add to that, its benefits are abused! It is unnecessary to know whether the Bible is written in Arabic, Latin, or Greek. Such knowledge does not deserve a million Toman! Knowledge should be promoted 


Chapter Two: Audio-Visual Media

 in another way. All details including the sense of humor, elements, advantages and disadvantages must be taking into consideration while producing entertaining materials."(1)

Censorship is among the top tasks that should be practically borne by Radio-TV media. Actually, it presents an obstacle in front of the flow of immorality in media. It also controls boundaries set by Islamic principles related to journalism. Imam Ali al-Khameini insists on several points here. Firstly, the role of censorship should not be limited by introducing the Islamic principles related to journalism. Secondly, censorship is a filter of all ideas to be broadcast for they may leak into the minds of the public in an indirect way. Thirdly, censorship should be put into practice from the beginning to facilitate any modifications before reaching post production stages. 
"Among your executive tasks is studying the content of any material along with the way it is going to be presented ahead of its production; you should carefully observe how far Islamic principles are actually practiced on daily work basis as to keep the legal distance between a man and a woman while acting, or to separate between them as they are sitting on the same sofa. In addition to that, you should study carefully the content of any material before handing it to the producer and while being undergoing its production stage, you should be on spot for an immediate treatment in order to avoid wasting money or re-modifications in late stages and to avoid any undesirable comments, as well."(2)

(1) Same event footnoted 12.
(2) Same event footnoted 12.


Chapter Two: Audio-Visual Media

 Harmonized Language

Imam Ali al-Khameini insists that media experts should avoid broadcasting any contradictory concepts that might lead to destabilize the values that are desired to be hold by the public. To him, presenting a film that tackles the issue of revenge in the broadcast period that focuses entirely on pardon and forgiveness is a big mistake. Any contradictory language would only mark time instead of presenting something worthy to public. 
 "Media messages must be presented with great coordination and successive flow. Presenting bits from here and there leads to nowhere. It is necessary to prepare materials to be presented in a way that each supports the other in order to be able to get their messages deeply rooted in society. Most of drama episodes seem to have been shot in luxurious palaces. Why? Is the majority of the nation living in palaces? Practically, you are broadcasting scenes taken in palaces; while theoretically you are speaking about ‘social justice’?!!! Is it necessary to shoot in such places? Comparing drama in ancient time and today, actually although the ancient drama production has not been as qualified as today, but it has been closer to reality as it shows people living in their modest houses- that is the very correct doing! There’s no need to introduce life as if it is so luxurious. In addition to that, there’s also a contradictory between broadcasting advertisements that promote consuming; while you have voted for the electoral campaign that criticizes and condemns consumption. 
Purposeful Content
All what has been already mentioned about the relation between media and the general public religious commitment and morality as well as making use of entertainment programs leads to one conclusive suggestion- the need of displaying purposeful content through audio and visual means. Some may mistakenly


Chapter Two: Audio-Visual Media

 think that having well-guided programs in media would create boredom among audience. 

The question now is how to harmonize between the two requirements-(having well-guided programs in addition to reserve the interest of the audience)? 
Well, Imam Ali al-Khameini, May Allah reserve him, gives his wise instructions to solve the issue as saying: 
"You have to oblige the study of the content of any material before producing it. Every material has to have a message and be expressed in a clear language. Well, that does not mean that they have to be boring. Messages could be embedded even in entertainment programs."(1)
Imam al-Khameini presents the following models exemplifying the purposeful broadcasting:
"A shot presenting a few old men joining   ‘the collective prayer’ will not serve in promoting this holy prayer! In addition to that, being only satisfied by broadcasting ‘the call to prayer’ is insufficient either! Our youths are filling the rows of ‘the collective prayers’ that are held everywhere all across our land; they are thousands in number full of enthusiasm and concentration. Many of our youths whose stories are tackled in drama films are actually among these young prayers who keep reciting supplications to Almighty Allah. The overwhelming state of faith and worship will certainly move on and shake throats inside upon listening to ‘the call to prayer’ as it is due! What a spiritual anthem ‘the call to prayer’ is! Right away listening to ‘the call to prayer’ many people halt their daily work and head toward mosques in large groups joining ‘the collective payer’! Media can serve in promoting this rescuing dutiful prayer by broadcasting all of these scenes that are capable of portraying ‘the collective prayer’ so brilliantly!"(2)

(1) The Annual meeting of establishing prayer, Jamadi the second, 29, 1423 Hegira, Karman.
(2) The Annual meeting of establishing prayer, Jamadi the second, 29, 1423 Hegira, Karman.  


Chapter Two: Audio-Visual Media

 Indirect Influence

The desirable influence of well studied content should not be stated explicitly as by lecturing people about what to do or halt doing; for this is definitely fruitless. These desirable messages should be implicitly embedded. There are many modern ways that can help achieving preferred results. Imam al-Khameini says:
"I’ve repeatedly mentioned that concepts should be conveyed indirectly; foreign films sometimes present their cultural and even religious messages in a way that makes them hardly felt; art always aims at expressing what human beings want in a wonderful style and with utmost influence without letting audience feel annoyed."(1)
Figures in Media
Media should carefully choose the figures they host. People in media are feared to becoming soon models for average people and youths. Imam Ali al-Khameini insists that media should shift their focus from silly people. 
"You should pay attention not to focus the light of fame on bad people. I’ve watched and listened to some programs wasting public funds as they are shedding light on some people, who even lack scientific and professional credibility. Why? Give me reasons. 
I sometimes watch some people unqualified in their professions or even considered as on average, yet they are given about one or two broadcasting hours presenting their profile, family background and silly history. Why? 
Moreover, by introducing these personalities, media are, in fact, creating and introducing models to the public. Do we really want to create this kind of models for youths?!"(2)

(1) Quoted as speaking in the same event footnoted 12.
(2) Quoted as speaking in the same event footnoted 12.


Chapter Three: Print Journalism


Undoubtedly speaking, Print Journalism gains the chief importance among the other kinds of journalism for it supplies its readers with constant influential material on daily basis. Imam Ali al-Khameini, May Allah reserve him, says: 
"A daily or weekly paper or any other periodical publication that is published in a very small number of copies- say about five thousand- but it has a fixed number – no matter if it is small, too, but it is fixed- of good followers who keep reading it and get influenced by it, then it could be said that such a publication is definitely influential as it is creating a certain influence at least upon this group of people. This will consequently lead to creating a constant intellectual stream among the entire public. The creation of such a permanent stream is exactly what managers of papers should work upon if they are really thinking about their readers and about guiding them. That is why papers with massive number of good and constant followers or readers are highly significant. Comparing the scope of the targeting audience among teaching, delivering speeches on the one hand and journalism on the other hand, journalism is the best, the most significant and with the widest range of targeting audience. That means we should focus on the role of journalism as we hold high expectations for its overall role, and managers in journalism sector should bear in mind the significance and the great influence of their jobs."(1)

(1)   Speaking to media professionals on 3, 12, 1414 Hegira.


Chapter Three: Print Journalism

 Print Journalism Social Role

Imam Ali al-Khameini insists on not perceiving journalism as an ordinary career to making a living. To him, it is a career that helps in building up the culture of the entire society so that it should be performing this role in particular in order to deserve its reality as journalism. 
"It is impossible to consider journalism in any way as a career for making a living. Its deep influence upon minds, attitudes, and morals of different categories of audience turns it to be beyond being a career simply for making a living! Its aims are in harmony with its tasks; thus in case journalism abandoned one of these aims or tasks, it would be similar to a physician abandoning his duty in treating his patients. No one can deny the necessity of earning money through practicing medical profession, for example, but a physician has to fully perform his duty first in order to earn money- in this case, vice is not versa. It is unethical for a physician to try gain financial income, social prestige, of fame in the time that he is not fulfilling his profession duties. It is even illogical to call such a person a ‘physician’ anymore. This is also applicable on the case of journalism profession. Journalism would be no more journalism if it abandoned one of its duties for which it has been found; and it could in no way hold up its incomplete existence."(1)
Print Journalism Major Tasks 
The main tasks of journalism could be summarized in three key points including: raising public awareness, upgrading public current level of knowledge, and creating a politicized stream. Imam Ali al-Khameini illustrates in depth. 

(1) Same event footnoted 20


Chapter Three: Print Journalism

 The first task

"Journalism has to work on creating awareness among the public. That journalism is able to raise awareness among the public, spread intellectual understanding, and help in having a clear-sighted stream among the public is an undeniable necessity. Compared with any other professional people, those working in journalism field have to be great followers of various social affairs as well as with clear vision and deep knowledge in order to be able to fulfill their duties perfectly."
The second task
"Journalism has been found merely for spreading and widening the scope of humanitarian sciences of various fields of knowledge among the public. It has to be performing in the same way class manages. A scholar class every time offers its attendees information and updates of various sciences. However, the target of journalism is the entire public including the various categories with different interests and specialization. Thus, specialized magazines have to keep raising the knowledge levels of their readers. Magazines specialized in science, economy, literature art, politics should always seek upgrading and updating their target audience with information; i.e. each has to have the spirit of a scholar class that keeps providing on daily basis and from the first day of the academic year new package of information in a well organized and planned manner. Based on this, the attendees of a religious session are supposed to be provided with information each time they attend; students of economy are supposed to acquire economical information, as well. Both journalism and academic class have one responsibility in common: delivering information to the public/ attendees. It is illogical to ask people finding another source of information. This is the core responsibility of journalism."


Chapter Three: Print Journalism

 The third task:

"Journalism has to raise political awareness among the public. It has to get the public prevailed by the spirit of politics. It has to get the entire public deeply interested in political issues; for the more the public is politicized, the more independent it becomes, and consequently the fewer risks it encounters from its foe; however, the farthest the public is from politics, the less able either to comprehend, recognize or analyze politics, thus the higher its risks to be trapped by world news kitchens- and this is the case of many other nations now! Such a public will soon be disabled from taking a decision by itself.  It will soon become no more than an executive body or passive receiver to its foe’s theories. Making the public be enabled to analyze politics, and update it with the latest political trends and currents are considered as ones of the major tasks of journalism. Print journalism has to offer its political analyses and inform the public the approaches of how to analyze politics. Presenting contradictory political analyses is acceptable; for they, in sum, will enable readers to adequately analyze and comprehend politics and current events."
Print Journalism and Rival Analyses 
Imam Ali Khamenei warns local media from already cooked news or political analyses, especially those provided by rival media (or news wires) as these sides usually deceitfully publicize for the foe’s policies; thus, according to him, it would be a big mistake if any of these imported items were accepted with favorable judgment or spread as they are; he also insists on studying these analyses along with their (stated and implied) purposes carefully and consequently filtering what is suitable among them. Imam Ali al-Khameini, May Allah reserve his presence, says:


Chapter Three: Print Journalism

  "News wires that are affiliated to Zionist institutions spread analyses and news all around the world. Unfortunately, (some of) our local papers and magazines re-publish these analyses as they are imported. By doing so they unconsciously become a tool in the hands of those who are planning to get them widely spread; and thus they help in getting their Satan goals achieved. Our press is supposed to be filtering news and analyses mixed with false components and not to publish them unless after exposing their reality."(1)

Wrapping up
Media play a chief role in guiding, raising awareness and spreading Islamic culture and dogma among the public. This is the main concern, which Islam shows toward man in general, and from which all media tasks are derived. Imam Ali al-Khameini says:
"The broad factor that helps in reserving Muslim nations along with the correctness of their thinking is based upon the collective effort dedicated to raising awareness and paid by all of the Islamic scholars, educated men, writers, artists, as well as active and wide-awake youths."(2) 
Were Muslims following such wise suggestions like those presented by Imam Ali al-Khameini, they would enjoy having true, transparent and strong media different from those owned by any other opponent structures that keep fabricating lying and misleading analyses. 
Finally, May Allah, the All-Hearing, lead us to keep following the principles of the guardians of Muslim affairs.  

(1) Same event footnoted 20
(2) Speaking as he was performing Hajj pilgrimage,  Thi al-Hojjah 7, 1413 Hegira, the Sacred Mecca