The Journey of Martyrdom

الناشر: جمعية المعارف الإسلامية الثقافية

تاريخ الإصدار: 2018-03

النسخة: 2010


شبكة المعارف الإسلامية



All praise is to Allah, who bestowed on us the grace of loyalty to his Prophet and his progeny, Peace be upon them all, whom Allah intended them to be the rising suns, the enlightening moons, the shining stars, the signs of the religion and the essence of knowledge, whose succession counted a pious descendant after a pious ascendant, a true hearted following his virtuous ascendant, and a right path after another.
Praised be Allah who awarded us the salvation Ark, the light of guidance, Imam Hussain Bin Ali Q, whom we were commanded to commemorate his martyrdom, and to continuously abide by the Islamic rules in order to honor his cause.
Thus far, the renaissance of Imam Hussain Q was and still constitutes a vast field of research and studies to extract crucial morals. Though more than thirteen centuries elapsed after this immortal battle, the generations of freemen around the world are still getting inspired by the Karbala’s essence to set their route and enlighten their path.
Yet, since each era has its own Yazeed and own Imam Hussain Q, getting to know the heroes of the immortal battle of Karbala, as well as the course of events and facts preceding it, using both logical and emotional language, 



 and provided with accurate and deep analysis of such events whether having preceded, accompanied, or followed the tenth day of Mouharram , 61 He, is an essential introduction to pave the way to understanding the requisites of such renaissance, in addition to its circumstances, effects and results.


Herein, we present to you a documented chronology of the historical events starting with the demand of «Muawiya Bin Abi Sufyan» to recognize his son « Yazeed» as Caliph (successor of the prophet), and ending with the tenth day of the month of Mouharram, we promise to provide you with a new episode of this historical documentary series which will deal, in its next edition, with the events following the martyrdom of Imam Hussain Q, the captivity journey, ending with the return of the Prophet’s convoy to the Medina.
Finally, we are eager to draw your attention, to the following: 
We relied on a set of highly considered and recommended historical references to compose this issue. Yet, they are:
«The Encyclopedia of Hussain convoy, from Medina to Medina», composed by a team of competent and skilled scientists, prepared and published by the Islamic Center of Studies – Ashura Studies Directorate – Iran.
Regarding some of the cases, requiring a high level of analytical narration, we provided the results that most renowned bibliographers have adopted without getting into the details of their analysis.
This edition is composed using simple and easy terminologies. The non professional reader may easily understand it, while preserving its scientific and historical value. 
As for us, we ask Allah (SW) to make this edition a knowledge 




 linking bridge between us and the Lord of emancipated freemen, steering to the heart and emotional fondness, hoping thus to be amongst those comprised within his intercession on the Judgment Day!

And Allah’s consent is our intention


Underlying Ashes Prelude

 Underlying Ashes

The Imamate Conception: 
The Imamate is the leadership ordered by Allah (SW) whereas to the Prophet’s P post era. Prophet Moham`mad P was assigned to communicate such Imamate to all people. 

The Imamate Role: 
Indeed, there is a general role for the Imams of Ahlul-Elbait (progeny of Prophet Mohammed) and all of them cooperate to realize it despite of the different social and political circumstances they went through, they are bound to safeguard the Islamic vocation.  Further to immunizing it against any impurities, they are also responsible for protecting the Nation (Umma) from all threats.  In addition to their role in explaining the Islamic rulings and Quranic facts, they are to lead the Islamic State in the face of any miscreant challenge, to educate the Nation (Al-Umma) about Ahlu-Elbait (prophet Mohammed’s progeny) and their merits of leadership, as much as possible and opportune. Amongst the general and common roles of all the Imams of Ahlul-Elbait R is that they are the first to revolt in the face of any unfair ruler, providing that the relevant and necessary means were available for the uprising in all its aspects not just in numbers.
The roles of Imams might be similar due to the resemblance of their surrounding circumstances, as it is for the situation faced by both Imams Al-Baqer, Al-Sadeq L, and Imams Al-Hadi, Al-Askari L.


Underlying Ashes Prelude

 Nevertheless, the specific roles of Imams might vary from others due to the contradictions of the surrounding circumstances, as it is the case with the truce of Imam Al Hassan Q with Muawiya, and the revolution Imam Hussain Q lead against Yazeed son of Muawiya 

The Umayyad Ruling:
After the conquest of the Holy Mecca, Muslims turned into a central powerful force and a victorious state.  Quraish – as a polytheist tribe – turned from a central congregation influencing events, into a weak, futile, and torn tribe.  Most of the «Umayyad» parties, as well as all Quraish tyrants, insisted on remaining infidels to the vocation of Prophet Mohammad P though apparently they pretended to please him when he asked them upon conquering Mecca:
«What do you think; I’m going to do with you?»
They said: «A noble brother, and a son of a noble brother».
He P said: «Go you are the freedmen».
Quraish tribe showed – as well as the Umayyad Majority – Islam as hypocrisy.  They used to lurk the events’ process waiting to grab the opportunity to attack Islam, but when they failed to achieve this during the time of Prophet Mohammed P, they postponed the execution of their devilish intentions.
The prince of the believers, Imam Ali L, said:
   «Arabs hated Mohammad’s P distinctive status and envied the grace Allah granted him, even his wife was defamed, while they drove away his camel even though he was greatly kind to them. He was still alive, when the Arabs unanimously agreed upon depriving his family of its preferential right after 


Underlying Ashes Prelude

 his death. If Quraish had not benefited of the Prophet’s name P to reach leadership, and used it as a bridge to dominate prestige and control, it wouldn’t have worshiped Allah after his decease not even for one day1.»

When they realized that Islam during the post-Prophet era P was deviating away of its course, as they had planned, their hopes and wishes were revived to recover their high rank as during the pre-Islam state of ignorance.  Accordingly, they started acting with the mentality of the ruling party, thus ignorance state overturned subsequently. Nevertheless, they remained under Islam cover to obliterate the true landmarks of the genuine Islam as delivered by Mohammad P.
The Prince of the believers L adds saying:
   «Afterwards Allah granted them (Quraish) many victories, and they became rich after being needy.  Financial abundance was enjoyed after striving and suffering from hunger.  Thus, they started appreciating parts of Islam that were previously considered repugnant. Their hearts became assured with the religion after being puzzled by it.  And they said: «If it (Islam) weren’t right, it wouldn’t be!» Then conquers were attributed to the opinions of their ruling princes and their good management. Thus people verified some people’s insight and the idleness of others. We were amongst those whose role underwent silence, whose brilliance got extinguished, notwithstanding that their voice and repute went so low until being fully forgotten. Years and epochs went by, where many of the knowledgeable people passed away, and lots of uninformed parties emerged 2.»
Accordingly, efforts to blockade the Prophet’s Sunna (Rules and way of life) started publicly, while hiding behind the pretended fear of the disagreement spreading out in

1 Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed, Explaining the Way, 20/892-9920
2 Ibn Ali AL-Hadeed, Explaining the way, 20/892/9920.


Underlying Ashes Prelude

 the Umma (Nation); thus the psychological paralysis state rised, untill it (the nation) let go of ordering kindness and denying abomination, failing to set any distinction between the right and the evil.

Amongst the most significant negative results, that became prominent throughout the years, between the decease of the Noblest Prophet P and the beginning of Hussain L Imamate are: 
Driving the rightful crown prince away of his position.
Subjecting the prophet’s progeny R to oppressing restrictions, and to siege them financially in particular, while pursuing their followers.
Preventing the «Hashem Family» from assuming governmental 
Laying the hands of the Umayyad and their supporters on 
     governmental offices.
The revival of the tribal mentality that used to be the basis of 
    distinguishing in granting (distribution of the Social Wealth).
The relying on luxury, opulent comfort and the garner of wealth.
Thus, the Nation (Umma) that Mohammad Bin Abdullah P had made (The best emerging Umma for People) was torn. 


Underlying Ashes Prelude

 It went back to tribalism and rigid classification. Quarrels were in vogue instead of brotherhood, which basis were set by the Prophet P. Accordingly opportunism and self – seeking prevailed, inducing to the raise of rich people and wretched poor classes. Thus, people’s utmost endeavor became servile flattering, sycophancy and adulation towards the Sultan


The Peace Treaty of Imam Hassan L and how does Imam Hussain L view it:
The conciliation with the Umayyad authority was the most odious choices available to Imam Al-Hassan L. He had to take such a choice to protect great Islamic interests.  Thus, He L saw how the spineless nation was not concerned with Islam destiny, especially after it previously stranded his father and it had made its choice upon the end of Seffeen Battle. Setting the opposition steering wheel forward enabled Muawiya to abolish Mohammedan truthful believers, through whom Allah (SW) intended to communicate Islam to the coming generations, while it disabled Imam Al-Hassan L from obliging Muawiya into accepting conditions that might reveal his aggression and his claim for the ruling, even though he didn’t have the slightest relation to it, neither directly or indirectly. 
Muawiya joined Islam in front of people just five months prior the decease of Prophet Mohammed P.  Nevertheless, the Quraish Umayyad Party paved the way for him to reach a position that enabled him to manipulate the destiny of both Islam and Muslims.
It is important, within this frame, to be aware of the alliance between Muawiya and some of the Christians and the Jews, as ascertained by the narration of the Prophet of Allah P. 
«Ibn (The son of) Hind will surely die while not being one 


Underlying Ashes Prelude

 of my denominations[1].»

   What was known as «the treaty», was indeed the only choice revealing the truth about the State of Authority, as well as its hypocrisy, and the second era of ignorance as pointed by the Noble Qur’an.
Imam Hussain L adopted, towards all of Imam Al Hassan’s L stands and decisions, the position of a collaborating partner and a supportive advocate. He ascertained to fully support Al Hassan’s decision in regards to the treaty and he obeyed him as a rightful Imam whom should be obeyed. He refused breaching that treaty and adhered and kept pacifying and calming some of the opponents’ outburst as he ordered them to abide by patience, awaiting and anticipating. 
After the martyrdom of Imam Al- Hassan L, loyalists wrote to him asking him to disengage himself off the treaty and to declare his revolution against Muawiya. But, he L answered them:
«I deeply believe that my brother’s opinion, whereas to his holy struggle against injustice, is right and sound, so keep a low profile, avoid attracting attention to yourselves, and hide your passion».

[1]  Ibn Abi-Al Hadeed: The Explanation of the Way: 20/892-9920. 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 Chapter One 

The First Spark
Highlights from the Biography of Imam Hussain Bin Ali Q 
He is Al-Hussain Bin Ali Bin Abi Taleb Q and the son of Fatima O, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, Mohammad P.  He was born on the third of Shaaban, (04 AH). He is one of the five persons of the garment (Al-Kesaa), whom Allah removed squalor away off them and purified them with a thorough purification.  Further, the Prophet P, by them, asked Allah to invoke the curse upon the Christians of «Najran». The Prophet P used to ascertain to the Muslims, at each and every occasion, what both the Shiite and Sunnite recite:
«Hussain is from me and I am from Hussain», «O Allah do love he who loves Hussain», «Hussain is the grandson of the Prophet as where the off springs (Assbat) of Prophet Jacob»
Hussain’s Glow Q was one of the Mohammedan lights surrounding Allah’s Throne, even before Allah (SW) had created humanity. 
No prophet was sent to humanity until he acknowledged the prophecy of Allah’s best human being, Mohammad P, throughout a private discourse, further to acknowledging the Prophet’s progeny’s right to reign.


Chapter One: The First Spark

 Yet, each and every prophet has with Al-Hussain Q a unique Hadith (quote), as well as a special anguish and longing.


All of the Prophets R moaned him, and through his blood, Allah (SW) will preserve the efforts of all the prophets throughout centuries, and if it was not for his pure blood, all of such efforts would have been in vain.
The Prophet P had often informed Muslims about Karbala and the martyrdom of the Master of Martyrs .Al Hussain Q.  He who deeply studies the Sunna (Prophet’s Rules), will find it fully enriched with the Prophet’s Hadith (saying) about Al-Hussain’s grave soil, Al-Hussain Karbala ‘a, Hussain’s whimpering, and encouraging Hussain’s support, while calling to apart from Yazeed and the Umayyad the murderers of Imam Hussain and the Prophet’s progeny R.
Imam Al-Hussain Q was martyred with his family and friends, during the battle of Karbala ‘a, on the tenth of Mouharram; 61 AH; after having refused pledging allegiance to Yazeed Bin Muawiya. Explaining the motives of his raise, He says: 
«Indeed, I went out claiming reform for the Umma (Nation) of my grand-Father, Allah’s Prophet P.  I want to order all that Islam has ordained and prohibit atrocious behaviors.»
Yazeed Bin Muawiya’s personality
Yazeed Bin Muawiya was born in 25 or 26 AH. His mother is Maysoun Al Nasrania (Maysoun the Christian of Kulaib tribe). She remained Christian though she was in the Muslim Caliph Castle! 
While being pregnant, she went back to her family, in 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 the steppes, wherein she gave birth to him. Yazeed grew up there among his uncles. Yazeed was immoral, whereas to his behavior, his sins or even his hobbies.  He did neither care for Allah’s regulations, nor for his limits. Yet, this was his father’s conduct preceding him, and he used to say to him: 


«My son, you are able to get what you want without the carelessness that might obliterate your manly state and rank, and might allow your enemy to gloat you and your friends to misunderstand you.»
Yazeed was the first one to publicly show his alcohol consumption, devotion to singing, hunting, attraction to male slaves, and to playing with monkeys. He used to embellish dogs by dressing them with gold bracelets and jewels.  He granted each dog a slave to serve it. Ziad Bin Abeeh said to Muawiya when the latter asked him to get Basra’s pledge of allegiance in favor of his son: «What would People say, if we call them to pledging allegiance in favor of Yazeed, while he plays with dogs and monkeys, wears jewels and  excessively drinks wine, not withstanding his walking to the sound of tabors?! »
Yazeed ordered Oubeid Allah Bin Ziad to kill Imam Al-Hussain Q and to send him the Imam’s head, after the latter refused pledging allegiance to him.  Indeed, He showed his pride of his belonging to pre-Islamic era of ignorance, while the Head of the Prophet daughter’s son Q was in front of him, and he recited the rhymes of Ibn Al-Zeabary that start with:
I wish my old chiefs at Badr could witness
Al Khazroj fearing of the impact of rush
He ends it by:
Hashem manipulated the Reign


Chapter One: The First Spark

 So, neither news arrived nor revelations happened

Yazeed ruling term was of three years and six months.
- In the first year, he murdered Imam Al-Hussain Bin Ali Q, his family members, and his friends during the battle of Karbala. He captured the ladies of his family and took them as prisoners from Karbala to Damascus. 
- In the second year, he robbed the Medina of the Prophet P, set his soldiers on it, for three days, killing seven hundred amongst Al-Muhajereen and Al- Ansar (expatriates and supporters since the Prophet era) afterwards no one amongst the early Muslims who witnessed Badr battle was still alive.  About ten thousand amongst the followers of Ahlul Baytt, Arabs, and friends were murdered, while women were violated.
-      In the third year, he besieged Mecca, and set fire in The Holy Kaaba.
Between Muawiya and Yazeed
Muawiya’s insistence on his son Yazeed becoming the Islam Caliph was a definite decision to abolish Islam and to get his revenge from Allah’s Prophet P by turning the caliphate into a Reign where the Nation’s will and choice are of no value. 
Muawiya said: «If it was not for my love to Yazeed, I would have been rational and realized my goal». This expression points out that Muawiya, with all his slyness, knew that the continuity of the hypocrisy movement, which produced the ignorant Umayyad regime, under the cover of the Islamic appearance, required Muawiya to provide a successor as sly as him, who wouldn’t commit fatuities that expose the use of the Islamic religion as coverage, so that the stratagem keeps going until the time comes where nothing remains of the Islamic 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 religion other than its name.  But Muawiya knew that Yazeed did not have such qualifications, because he possessed enough frivolity and idiocy to destroy what needed fifty years to be established.


Nevertheless Mouwiya’s selfishness and his love to Yazeed as a continuation of his existence and lineage, made him insist on Yazeed becoming his successor, because he was driven by his passion towards his son, though he was aware of the catastrophes he was going to induce, against the Umayyad , especially that there were rulers alike Yazeed governing other Islamic principalities whose stupidity would lead them to a public confrontation with the family of the Prophet  P due to the deep feeling of resentment and hatred towards them, knowing  that they were going to exterminate the principality of the governors who adopted the malignant politics of Muawiya, which is the secret confrontation, by pointing out their weak management of the country affairs.

Muawiya’s grabbing the allegiance pledging for Yazeed
After Imam Al-Hassan’s Q martyrdom consequently to being poisoned by his wife, Jaada Bint Al-Asha’ath, further to a promise Muawiya made to her, whereas to make her the wife of his son, Yazeed, but he didn’t keep his promise, Muawiya grabbed the allegiance pledging in favor of Yazeed, in «Bilad Al-Sham» as well as in most of the other regions.
He delegated to the Medina governor at that time, Marwan Bin Al-Hakam, to obtain the Yazeed allegiance pledging from the people’s dignitaries, who refused granting it to Marwan.
The Holy City (Almadina) was the center of gravity of the Islamic vocation. In it, is the residence of Imam Al-Hussain Q and his immaculate family members the Hashim’s family, as well as the remaining companions of the messenger of Allah. 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 Thus grabbing allegiance out of its rightful owners would be deemed a great victory for Muawiya, whereas to placing the Hashim Family along with Imam Hussain Q in front of an in evidence fact, by keeping the ruling of Muslims caliphate within the Umayyad hands.


When Medina refused to grant the allegiance to Yazeed, Muawiya revoked Marwan and appointed Saed Bin Al A’as as its governor.  He ordered him to obtain the allegiance of Mouhajereen and Ansar by force. He wrote commanding him to be strict and rigid while staying lenient to avoid any infringement while dealing with Imam Al-Hussain Q. Muawiya’s letter said: «Keep an eye on Hussain particularly, don’t cause him any harm, because he enjoys great kinship and right which no Muslim man or woman may deny. He is a lion, king of his den, but I don’t trust that you are able to handle him, have you sake his advice». These facts were not due to Muawiya’s respect toward Imam Al-Hussain Q, but to his slyness, whereas to the incoming events.
During his life time, Muawiya monitored Imam Al-Hussain Q closely. He used to observe each and every move of Imam Al-Hussain Q, slight or big, within his private and public life.  He meant for Imam Hussain Q to know that, in order to prevent him from even thinking about rising or revolting.
Muawiya wrote to the Imam Q, after the latter had refused pledging allegiance to Yazeed as the Caliph successor, saying: 
I have been told things about you, I didn’t think that you are far from it; Thus, the most eligible person of loyalty towards a pledge of allegiance he gave is someone like you, with your special status, honor and respect, that Allah granted you, so 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 don’t rush after seizing your severance, and do fear Allah and don’t throw the Umma (Nation) in turmoil. Look after yourself, your religion, and the Nation of Mohammad, do not underestimate those who are not true believers».

Imam Al-Hussain Q replied to Muawiya objecting and including his condemnation to Muawiya for having murdered the sublime companion of the Prophet, Hojor Bin Ouday, further to granting Ziad Bin Obeid, the Roman, Abi Sufyan’s pedigree, and then granting him the power to devastate the Umma. He reminded him about the harsh aftermath, that this life is going to end, and that Allah has a book which does not omit any big or small behavior without recording. Yet, the closing paragraph of that reply was as follows: 
«Be aware that Allah has not forgotten your killing for just suspicion and punishing for just considering accusation is enough for punishing, and your caliphate granting to a boy, who drinks wine and plays with dogs. I don’t see you but as having ruined your soul, destroyed your religion and caused your subjects’ loss, and Peace.»
Thus Muawiya came in pilgrimage to Medina and sent for Imam Al-Hussain Q, Abdullah Bin Al-Zoubeir, and Abdel Rahman Bin Abi Bakr, each of whom individually, inviting them to pledge allegiance to Yazeed, but he failed to obtain anything of them.
The very next day, Muawiya sent for Imam Al-Hussain Q and Abdullah Bin Al-Abbas who arrived there first. Then, Muawiya seated him to his left and talked for a long time with him, until the arrival of Imam Al-Hussain Q. When Muawiya saw the Imam, he provided for him a cushion on his right to sit on. Imam Al-Hussain Q entered and greeted them. Muawiya asked him about the family of his brother, Al 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 Hassan Q, so he informed him and then kept quite.


Muawiya started talking and after Praising Allah, he talked in a long discourse describing his son Yazeed and the intention of Muawiya, to appoint him as a Caliph, and amongst what he said: «…There has been things about Yazeed that you are fully aware of; Allah knows what I’m trying to do about our national affairs whereas to fill the gaps and mend the splits by appointing Yazeed a Caliph, which had raised (his) vigilance and made his acts seem good, this is what I aimed by appointing Yazeed…»
Here, Imam Al-Hussain Q replied,
«…. I understood what you said about Yazeed, concerning his perfection and politics awareness towards Mohammad’s Umma (nation). You want to delude the people about Yazeed, as if you were describing an invisible person or describing an absent one, or telling what you learned through a personal knowledge, at a time when Yazeed has pointed by himself his true personality and opinion …»
Afterwards, Muawiya isolated himself from the people for three days, and then he came out and ordered the announcer to call the people together for a comprehensive issue. Thus people gathered in the Mosque. Imam Al-Hussain Q, along with his companions, sat around the rostrum.  Muawiya started telling the people about Yazeed’s virtues asking for his allegiance from all villages and cities, which all approved except for Medina that delayed pledging for him.
Imam Al-Hussain Q debated in front of the people Yazeed’s virtues. But the kinsfolk’s of Damascus drew their swords and asked the permission to decapitate the men refusing to pledge. Imam Al Hussain Q wanted everyone to know his opinion, in order to clarify that He wasn’t giving the slightest 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 legitimacy to appoint Yazeed… which forced Muawiya to leave the rostrum.


The people of Mecca came to Imam Al-Hussain Q to inquire about Yazeed allegiance pledging, and to inform him that they got news that he, Imam Hussain Q, was invited to pledge allegiance and he accepted.
Thus, Imam Al-Hussain Q said: «No, By God, we did not pledge allegiance, but Muawiya deceived and conspired against us, with some of the ways he used to deceive you
Imam Al-Hussain Q in the City of Allah’s Messenger P.
People hated war, due to their long sufferance from it; not withstanding that they wanted to have a quiet secure and peaceful life in this world, further to obeying their tribes’ chiefs will.  However, after a while, they discovered the extent of the error they fell into, due to their feebleness to assume the combats consequences, and disappointing Imam Al-Hassan Q   after they have witnessed the reality of the reigning authority that adopted the principle of persecution, terrorism, starvation, privation, continuous chasing, freedom strangulation, and religion and values mocking, . Imam Al-Hussain Q gave his followers the utmost care and protection. He persisted, in spite of his very sensitive and dangerous socio-political condition, to protect them from any harm. He tried his best to keep them away from devastation. He encouraged the knowledgeable amongst his loyalist followers to provide their deprived brothers with the knowledge they needed, further to spread out political culture and awareness against the government danger besetting the Mohammadan Religion.
Within the frame of the political and religious current confusing the Islamic public opinion, Imam Al-Hussain Q was fighting against such trend, trying to break through it in 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 demonstrating true right, calling to join in and defend it.


Imam Al-Hussain Q aimed to expose confusion and its falseness, and to keep it away from the Nation’s mentality. 
He ordered what Islam had ordained and forbade the wrong doing, by educating the nation and enlightening it throughout his preaching and guidance sessions that he used to hold in both Medina and Mecca. He used religious occasions to spread awareness amongst the nation while reminding it about the Prophet’s noble rules and He called them to support and advocate what is right. Within a speech addressing the erudite and educated people particularly amongst the companions and the followers in general, wherein he discussed and clarified the deep reasons for refusing pledging allegiance for Yazeed, saying:   
«O Allah! Thou know that what we have done was not for competing to reign. Neither was it a solicitation for the offal wreckage of this world. Yet, we aim to show your religion postulates features, to intensify reform in your land, wherein the victim of injustice, being amongst your servants, may be secure as your obligatory religious duties, rules, and orders shall be applied…»
People from Iraq, and dignitaries from Hejaz, Basra and Yemen, as well as from the different Islamic cities, all came to pay him high regards and to dignify him, devoting themselves to his service while saying:
«We will be your reinforcement and support», but when Muawiya died no one amongst those people was just towards Imam Al Hussain Q.
Muawiya devoted his remaining days, paying great attention to Imam Al Hussain Q; He took acute measures to neither 



Chapter One: The First Spark

 molest nor provoke him while constantly keeping a close eye on him, to hinder his revolution thought from coming out. He would rather leave it as an intention than it becoming a practical execution and implementation. Al Waleed Bin Utaba, who assumed Medina ruling, after Said Bin El A’ass, declared acknowledging the restrictions adopted by the official authority towards the Imam Q, when the latter severely scolded him saying:

«You are being unjust towards yourself, while disobeying Allah; why are you impeding me from meeting the people who knew my right, what you and your uncle did not realize?»
Muawiya’s Death
Muawiya died at the age of seventy, out of which he spent around forty two years as the Governor of Damascus, including some nineteen years and few months (as a king) ruling all the Islamic countries. He is the one who said: «I am the first among kings», and «We accepted it as a kingdom».
He let his close companions know that he wrote in his will to his son Yazeed: «Regarding Al-Hussain, I hope Allah will suffice him with the one who murdered his father and let down his brother. He has a close kinship, a sublime right, and a relationship with Prophet Mohammed P, I don’t think the people of Iraq would leave him, until he arises. If you defeat him, set him free, as if I was alive at that time (in your place), I would have forgiven him…»
This devilish Umayyad will isn’t but a hidden message to attract Yazeed’s attention who disdained the religion and politics affairs, to the danger he might incur if he fights against Imam Al Hussain Q publicly, because such issue will indefinitely separate Islam away from the authority, and tear apart the religious frame to which the Umayyad reign adheres 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 to, granting thus the nation a new revolutionary and sacrificing spirit, free of any defects of psychological paralysis; accordingly revolutions against the regime will keep going. Yet, any secret confrontation, and the murdering of Imam Al-Hussain Q by either poisoning or assassinating him, will leave no tracks, and his fabricated death trick will deceive the nation.


Nevertheless, the issue wasn’t restricted to the probable secret confrontation, but a public confrontation was possible, where Imam Al-Hussain Q would choose its time and place, further to generating its publicity and intimation atmosphere, as he determine and not according to the authority’s will, and this is precisely what Muawiya feared, in his life time. The same occurred, after his death, with his son Yazeed, who became the Muslims’ Caliph.
Yazeed’s Request Allegiance Pledging of Imam Al Hussain Q
Yazeed Bin Muawiya sent his letter to Al Waleed Bin Ataba after Muawiya’s Death. It said:
«If you receive this letter, you should invite Al-Hussain Bin Ali and Abdullah Bin Al-Zubayr and get their allegiance pledging in my favor, but if they refuse to do so, decapitate them and send me both their heads, then do oblige the people to declare their homage to me, while decapitating those who refuse.»
If Imam Al-Hussain Q has pledged allegiance in favor of Yazeed, this would have meant legitimating and approving the ending of the upright Islamic religion and replacing it with the Umayyad religion, in addition to turning the Islamic ruling into an inheritance reign.
Moreover, killing Imam Al-Hussain Q shall mean to get rid of the utmost danger, which ought to uncover 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 Yazeed allegiance’s lack of legacy. This issue ascertains that sly Muawiya had planned that and pretended otherwise, additionally to Yazeed’s Attempt afterwards, to impute the consequence on Ibn Ziad.


When Al-Waleed read the book, He said: «We belong to God and to Him we shall return» and called: «There is neither power nor strength, unless with Allah the Almighty» and he murmured: «Woe unto Al Waleed Bin Ataba, who let him be a prince? What business do I have with Al-Hussain Bin Fatima?!» The reason behind Al-Waleed reaction is due to his knowledge of the bad consequences of the public confrontations and the spiteful impacts that the Umayyad ruling will be drifted towards.
Muawiya’s death remained a secret; only the intimates amongst ruling followers knew, in an attempt to obtain the allegiance pledging of Imam Al-Hussain Q before declaring the Caliph’s death.  Thus, Al Waleed delegated to Imam Al-Hussain Q to obtain his allegiance pledging.
Al Waleed was usually compelled to seek advice from Marwan Bin Al- Hakam, who was his predecessor as a governor, even though they were in great controversy with each other. Al Waleed sent after Imam Al-Hussain Q, who Q addressed to his young men, tribe, supporters and next of kin to inform them about the invitation and said:
«Be at the door of this man; I’m going to meet him and talk to him. If you hear my voice becoming loud and you may hear what I’m saying, and I called you, you have to enter, you the family of the Prophet, break the doors without any authorization, and then do draw your swords but don’t start any fight. However, if you see what does not please you, do use your swords and kill he who wants to murder me.» 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 Afterwards Imam Al-Hussain Q left his house, while holding in his hand the staff of His Grandfather, Allah’s Prophet Q, while surrounded by thirty men of his next of kin, supporters and followers. He Q stopped them at the door of Al Waleed Bin ATaba and said:


«Do adhere to what I told you and don’t exceed it, I hope I’m going to come back safe to you, if God wills (Inshallah)»
Then, Imam Al-Hussain Q came into Al-Waleed’s place, where he greeted him, whilst the latter’s response was proper. He called him and invited him to sit by his side; and Marwan Bin Al-Hakam was sitting there as well.
Al Imam Q addressed to both Al-Waleed and Marwan saying:
«May Allah guide the prince to do what is right, as goodness is better than corruption; and having a good relationship is better than hardness and enmity; you ought to rally with each other, thanks are to Allah, who restored harmony between you both»
However, they remained silent. Thus the Imam Q said:
«Did you get any news about Muawiya’s situation, he was sick and his sickness lasted long! So, how is he now?»
Al Waleed sighed and said: 
«Ya Aba Abdullah (O, father of Abdullah!), May Allah provide you with his condolences about Muawiya! He was a good uncle to you. He is dead, and this is the letter of Yazeed, the Caliph…»
The Imam Q said: «To God we belong, and to him we shall return! May God enhance your recompense, O prince. 


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 But, why did you invite me?»


Al Waleed said: «I called you to pledge allegiance for him, since all the people elected him»!
Al-Hussain Q said: «Indeed, people like me do not pledge allegiance secretly, but I like to do it publicly in front of a group of people. However, when tomorrow comes, and when you call the people for the pledging, and invite us too, so our decision shall be one!»
Al-Waleed answered: «Aba Abdullah, you spoke and talked excellently. I liked the answer of such person like you, and this is what I expected of you, do go in guidance and with Allah’s blessings, until you come to me tomorrow with all the people». 
At that moment Marwan said: «Dear Prince, if he sets away from you, at this very moment, he will not pledge allegiance, you won’t be able to make him do so, and you won’t be able to bring him here again? Do imprison him; don’t let him go out unless he pledges allegiance, otherwise cut his throat!»
Imam Al-Hussain: Q looked back at him and said: «Woe unto you, unlawful child! Are you commanding to cut my throat? You are surely mistaken! By God! By God! If one of you even wishes it, he shall see his blood watering the ground before he moves. If you want so, do give the orders to cut my throat, should you be honest!»
Afterwards, Imam Al Hussain Q approached Al-Waleed and said: 
«We are the progeny of the Prophet P and the core of the holy message. We are the haven for the angels and the cause of mercy. Allah started with us to close also with us, thus, Yazeed is an immoral man, who drinks alcohol, kills sacred souls, 


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 and practices his immorality publicly! He who is like me does not pledge allegiance to a person like him, but, tomorrow’s daylight shall rise over your and our heads, thus we and you shall realize who amongst us has the right of becoming the Caliph and getting the allegiance from the people.»

Those who were at the door heard the Imam. They were about to break the door and withdraw their swords, but the Imam quickly went out to them and ordered them to go home while He Q headed to his house.
Accordingly Imam Al-Hussain Q made the local authority lose the opportunity of killing him, by accompanying himself with his family, partisans, supporters, and followers fully armed, awaiting for the signal to intervene at the conclusive moment.
Marwan burst with rage against Al Waleed: «You disobeyed me, until Al-Hussain is free away of your hands. By Allah, you are unable to face or defeat him; and By Allah He will start his rebellion against you and the Caliph, so be aware of that!»
Al-Waleed replied: «Woe unto you! You ordered me to kill Al-Hussain. Should I have done so, I would have lost my religion and my earthly life! By Allah! I will not be pleased even if I own the whole world having killed Al Hussain Bin Ali, son of Fatima Al Zahra’a. By Allah! I don’t think that anyone who kills Al-Hussain would go to face Allah, unless being accompanied with a light set of deeds to be produced before Allah,  on the resurrection day, then Allah will neither look at him, nor help him, while being tormented and tortured.»
Al-Waleed knew that the reign safety required the murdering of Imam Al-Hussain Q in secrecy not publicly. Marwan kept silent since he wanted Al Waleed to kill the Imam Q and get rid of him, because he hated him on one side, while on 


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 the second, to let mutiny burst up in Medina, encouraged by his envy and fury against Al-Waleed because the latter became the ruler instead of him.


Al-Imam made all the necessary precautions for any expected harm resulting of such meeting, and to defeat any possible crush, he went escorted with a military force of his family members. He even announced his revolution and apposition against Yazeed during the same meeting. The Imam Q intended, through his answer to Al-Waleed’s request, to be called to pledge allegiance publicly in front of all common people.  This way he exploits a vast force and utilizes the intimation factor and publicity effect on the general public allegiance gathering that the nation of the Medina is usually called for. Whereas if he refuses pledging allegiance to Yazeed in front of the Medina’s crowd, while divulging for this massive gathering of people Yazeed’s truth of immortality and perversion, further to instigating them to refuse allegiance pledging in favor of Yazeed and steering them to revolute against such person, while announcing his uprising in front of them, informing them about the objectives of the resolved rise; and calling upon them with what is common and well known sayings of the Prophet P, this will enable him to take off the reign’s veil of legitimacy before the largest possible crowd.
The Imam’s Q Decision to Leave Al-Medina
After the meeting Imam Al-Hussain Q had with Al-Waleed, and his declaration of his honest position, this fortified the possibility that the authority might try to assassin the Imam Q or that a military confrontation would burst up, in Medina, between the Imam Q and his supporters on one side and the authority on the other side due to the insistence of the governing party and its planning members, and this is what was revealed by Marwan’s attitude, and accordingly 


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 which was materialized though Yazeed’s stringent orders to Al-Waleed to kill Imam Al Hussain Q in case he refuses to pledge allegiance. 


In anticipation to the expected occurrence, the Imam decided to leave Medina, along with all his convoy, since Medina, The city of his grandfather, the Prophet P, is no longer safe for him. Yet, it appears that his decision to get out of Medina City was to avoid being assassinated, and fearing for his noble soul from being killed whether by betrayal or through an armed confrontation, the truth also penetrates deeply inside the fact that such fear was an element of a greater one, which was to see his sacred revolution extinguished before being ignited, by getting killed in Medina with fabricated time and place circumstances. Therefore, he was keen to realize his unavoidable demise, while depriving the enemy from keeping it under obscurity and benefiting of it, strangling all aims sought of such death, which he wanted for it to shake the conscience of the nation, in order to move in the right direction he desired for it. 
Imam Al-Hussain Q Visiting the Graves of his Grand-Father, Mother and Brother Q
During the same night, when Imam Al-Hussain Q was at Al-Waleed Bin Utba, he came to the tomb of his Grand Father, the Prophet P and said: 
«Allah’s Peace be upon you, O messenger of God, I’m Al-Hussain, son of Fatima, I’m your offspring the son of your beloved daughter, I’m your grandson and your succession that you bequeathed to your nation. Do be the witness onto them, Allah’s Prophet, that they had disappointed me and let me down, they did neither respect nor protect me, this is the compliant I submit to you, until I meet you, May God’s Peace be upon you.»


Chapter One: The First Spark

 On the same night, Al-Waleed sent after Imam Al-Hussain Q but he didn’t find him at home. He thought then, that he left Medina. In the next morning, while Imam Al-Hussain Q was on his way back, he met Marwan Bin Al Hakam, who invited him to pledge allegiance. Hence Imam Al-Hussain Q ascertained that pledging allegiance in favor of Yazeed is to eliminate Islam, by saying to Marwan:


«To Allah we belong and to Him we shall return; farewell to Islam, if Umma is afflicted with a ruler such as Yazeed.» Afterwards, the Imam Q went back, on the same night he met Marwan, to visit the grave of his Grand Father. He did a small prayer, and when he finished, He went on saying:
«O Allah this is the grave of your Prophet Mohammad, and I am the son of the daughter of Mohammed. It had Occurred to me what you already know; O, Allah I love goodness and hate wrong doing, I ask you, thee Almighty, with the value of this grave and the person resting therein, to select for me on this matter what shall be of satisfaction to you!»
At that moment, he started crying till he placed his head on the grave and fell asleep for some hours, thus he saw the Prophet P coming surrounded by angels, and he embraced Al-Hussain Q in his arms, he kissed him between his eyes and said:
«My son, O Hussain, it is as if I am soon visualizing you murdered and slaughtered in a land of distress and disaster, by a gang derived from my nation. You are thirsty but they will give you no water, you are parched; but you will not be quenched, though they are asking for my intercession. May Allah deprive them of my intercession on the resurrection day, because they have no merits to be valued by Allah. My beloved Hussain, Your Father, Mother and Brother came to me, and 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 they all miss you.  There is a special place in heaven for you, but you’ll not reach it except through martyrdom.»


He headed in the middle of the night to the Grave of his Mother Al-Zahra’a O wherein he prayed and said farewell to her, then he visited the grave of his brother, Imam Al-Hassan Q to do the same.
Farewell Meetings in Medina
During this short period of time, men, women and other people of the Hashems Family rushed to Imam Al-Hussain Q to see him off and try to get enough of him before he leaves. Um Salama, , the wife of the Prophet P came to him and said:
«Son, don’t cause me sorrow by going to Iraq, because I had heard your Grand Father saying: 
«Hussain, My son, will be murdered on the land of Iraq, in a place called Karbala ‘a.»
Thus, The Imam Q said to her:
«O mother, by Allah, I am aware of the day when I will be killed, I know my murderer, and I know the spot wherein I shall be buried. I, furthermore know who, amongst my family, relatives and followers will be killed too, and if you want I may show you, mother, my grave and my final bed!»
Then Om Salama>, went on weeping and shedding tears; and she submitted to Allah’s will. She said, addressing to him: «and I have some soil, your Grand-Father gave me in a bottle!». Thus, he Q said:
«By Allah! I shall be killed this way, even if don’t go to Iraq they will still kill me.»


Chapter One: The First Spark

 Afterwards, he took some soil; put it in a small bottle and said Q:

«Keep it with the small bottle of my Grand-Father, if they flood with blood, know that I’m killed.»
Then he entrusted her with his will, commandments’ letters and other things, while saying: 
«If my elder offspring comes to you, give him the consignment I gave you.»

The Imam’s Q Will to his Brother, Mohammad Bin Al Hanafiah 
He is Mohammad, son of Imam Ali Bin Abi Taleb Q, while the term «Hanafiah» is the surname of his mother, who is Khawla daughter of Jaafar son of Qeiss son of Salama son of Thaalaba son of El Dual son of Hanafiah. She was one of the prisoners of Al Yamama. They were captured for their allegiance to Imam Ali, Q. They wanted to sell her but Imam Ali Q married her. Mohammad Bin Al Hanafiah was a loyal follower for the Imamate of both Imam Al-Hussain and his son Ali Bin Al-Hussain L.
Imam Ali Q used to throw Mohammad into distracting while not allowing Imam Al Hassan, or Imam Al Hussain Q to do so, while saying:
«He is my son, while they both are the sons of the Prophet P»
Some of the apostates said to Mohammad Bin Al Hanafiah: «Why does your father accept sending you to wars, while he spares them both?»
And he used to answer by saying:


Chapter One: The First Spark

 «I’m his right hand, while they are his two eyes; hence he protects his eyes by using his right hand.»


Mohammad Bin Al Hanafiah came to Imam Al Hussain Q in the morning of another day in Medina; he was overwhelmed with sorrow and gloominess, while being overpowered by the yoke of concern and fear for the life of Imam Al Hussain Q. When he sat next to the Imam Q he said: 
«Dear Brother, you are to me the most beloved amongst people. I may not spare advice to anyone but to give it to you; you are the most entitled one for it.  Do abstain from pledging allegiance in favor of Yazeed Bin Muawiya and keep as much as possible away off the regions. Afterwards, do send invitations to the people to pledge allegiance in your favor. If they do so and in your favor you shall praise Allah accordingly. But if they unanimously agree upon electing some other person, Allah will diminish neither your faith nor your good judgment and your kindness or generosity shall not be perished. I fear you might go into some of such region, wherein people might suffer disparity to become thus divided among themselves, some of them might support you, while others oppose. Then they start fighting, and thus you’ll become the first target for their spears, which might result for the best person of this nation, on all levels with respect to his pure soul, or his noble father and mother , for his blood to be shed and his family to be humiliated».
Imam Al-Hussain Q replied: «Where do you want me to go, Dear brother?»
Ibn Al Hanafiah said: «Go to Mecca, and if you feel secure you can settle there, but if you don’t you would follow the sands and the people of the mountains, thus you will move from a place to another, awaiting for the decision to be taken 


Chapter One: The First Spark

 by the people. As you make better judgment if you receive the decision instead of letting it come to you.»

The Imam Q Said then:
«O Brother, by God, if the whole world becomes empty of shelters, I’ll never pledge allegiance in favor of Yazeed Bin Muawiya, O Allah, do not bestow your blessing on Yazeed.»
This is when Mohammad Ben Al Hanafiah cried and Imam Al-Hussain Q shared his tears.
Then, Imam Al Hussain Q said:
«Brother, you have given your advice and compassion. I wish your opinion is pertinent and fortunate. I have decided to go to Mecca. My brothers, nephews, my followers and I are ready for that. They all have the same opinion as I, and they want to face the same destiny. As for you, my brother, I want you to stay in Medina, wherein you will be keeping an eye on them for me, and don’t worry about me of any of their plots!»
Afterwards, Imam Al-Hussain Q asked for an inkwell and a blank paper. He wrote his immortal will to the order of his brother Mohammad, wherein he explained the main and principal objective for him to dissident against Yazeed:
«In the Name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful, 
This is the will made by Al-Hussain Bin Ali Bin Abi Taleb to his brother Mohammad, known as Ibn Al-Hanafiah: 
Indeed, Al Hussain states that there isn’t any God but Allah, the one and only, who has no associate, and that Mohammad is his servant and messenger. He came with the divine right from the utmost right, and that heaven and hell surely exist, and that the time of resurrection is undoubtedly coming where Allah 


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 will raise those in the graves. Yet, I did not secede for greed, vanity, corruption or despotism, indeed I aim reformation for the nation of my Grand Father, the Messenger of God P and my Father, Ali Bin Abi Taleb Q I want to order good doing and prohibit wrong doing, He who recognize me, by acknowledging the truth, then God is the cardinal of truth, and he who did not recognize that this is my right, I shall endure until Allah makes his judgment to resolve issues between me and those people and Allah is the most trusted judge. This is my will to you and my success isn’t granted by no one but Allah, only onto him I rely and to him I shall return».

Leaving Medina at Night and Going on the Great Path (Main Road):
Imam Al-Hussain Q departed Medina with his companions and convoy during late night hours. The same situation occurred also when he left noble Mecca, which indicates that his departure occurred secretly, fearing the authority pursuit, and due to his concern not to be killed in Medina or in order to avoid any armed confrontation therein. Nevertheless, he announced in Mecca, as we will state at a later stage, about the time of his departure. Some scholars say that Imam Al-Hussain had left Medina, while reciting Allah’s following utterance:
«So, he escaped from there, looking about in a state of fear. He said: «My Lord! Save me from the people who are Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers)»Al-Qasas (Verse 21)
 Knowing that it is unlikely for the authority to be unaware about the departure of Al-Hussain convoy, because it is relatively large, notwithstanding that Al-Waleed Bin Utaba was lenient to exert pressure on the Imam Q and wished him to leave Medina, so he would be spared of the calamity of 


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 shedding his blood.


The Imam Q insisted on taking the longest road, ready to face any danger, whether being accounted for or not, and he will not let go of this path, in order to create awareness for his uprising by enabling the Hussain’s convoy to meet every traveler and every convoy heading to Mecca.  Since they will surely wonder about the reasons that forced Imam Hussain Q to leave the City of his Grand Father P, together with all the Hashim’s family and his partisans, accordingly a necessary publicity work and intimation would be accomplished in order to widen the scope of such blessed insurrection, out sourced by the Mohammedan and Hussain’s courage. This is also how he would announce to the nation, that he is not such a rebellion, opposing to a legal government, that they had recognized at first, to revolt against it afterwards. In fact, He is the legal representative and the most eligible party for the Greatest Road and the Caliphate succession, as well as for all the nation’s affairs.
Al Hussain Convoy:
Imam Al Hussain Q left Medina, accompanied by all his sons, brothers, his brother’s sons, and his household members Q except for Mohammad Bin Al Hanafiah due to sickness, Abdullah Bin Jaafar, being the husband of Lady Zeinab O, for being blind, his daughter Fatima Al Sughra’ for being also hindered by sickness, and Abdullah Bin Abbas, because of acute shortsightedness which turned into blindness after Imam Al-Hussain’s Q martyrdom
In addition to the non-Hashemi partisans who had left Medina with him, they were around ten men, counting: Abdullah Bin Boukter Al-Houmayri, Souleiman Bin Razeen, and Saad Bin Abdullah Al Doualy….


Chapter One: The First Spark

 Some of the partisans rejoined the convoy while heading to Mecca, including: Majmaa Bin Ziad Bin Amro Al Juhani, Ibad Bin Al Mouhajer Bin Abi Al Mouhajer Al. Jouhani, Akaba Bin Al Salt Al Jouhani…


The Imam Q led his convoy until reaching Mecca. Yet, he didn’t receive any letter from the Kufa people, because they did not know about Muawiya’s death, till the arrival of the Imam Q to Mecca.


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 Chapter Two:

The beginning of 
Al-Hussain’s Uprising:
The Arrival to Mecca
Imam Al. Hussain Q stayed in Mecca from the third of Shaaban till the eighth of Zu Al-Hejjah (names of Lunar months). He chose Mecca to benefit from the Pilgrimage month, in order to spread out awareness of his blessed uprising and to introduce its objectives to the whole Islamic World. He resided at the house of Al. Abbas Bin-Abdel Mouttaleb, located in «Sheab Ali», because it was the only house left in Mecca, belonging to the Hashems. Aqeel Bin Abi Taleb had sold the houses of all the Migrants (Al Mouhajerren) of people of Hashem, out of fearing that Quraish tribe might seize and confiscate them. He even sold the house of the Prophet P.  The Imam selected Al-Abbas residence to start preparing his rise from there for political, social and intimation reasons. His supporters in all the Islamic countries started sending letters to Imam Al-Hussain, asking him about what concerns them regarding their religion.


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 Holy Mecca Political and Social Structure

The social structure of Holy Mecca, since the Prophet era P, was a tribal one, composed of families and clans. Quraish is composed of twenty five tribes divided into two sections, the first one counts twenty three tribes, being thus more in number and resources apparently. The second section is composed of Allah’s Prophet Mohammad’s P tribe and the tribe of Abdel Mouttaleb Bin Abed Mounaf.
While all of Quraish tribes were hostile to Mohammad vocation; They were deeply disappointed and felt badly relapsed due to what happened to them by the Hashems in general, and particularly by Ali Bin Abi Taleb Q, mainly due to the glorious rank reached by the Prophet P and his power strengthening, especially after the Great Badr battle, wherein Quraish mobilized all its forces, as no one left of its wealthy people who had not paid money to equip the army. Yet they said: «We will demolish the house of those who do not pay!»
After Badr battle, Quoriesh’s hatred was consolidated against the Hashim kinsfolk in general. Quraish knew that Ali Bin Abi Taleb Q was the main reason of their defeat and catastrophic loss, since he killed the most important personalities of Quraish. Yet, such rancor remained concealed, and it got nourished by the authority emanating from the tribe that hated the family of the Prophet P the most: They were the Sufian kindred, and that proves the absence of any popular base to follow the lead of Imam Al-Hussain Q and support his move. Yet, the situation was best described by Imam El-Sajjad, Zein El-Abedeen Q, when he said:
«There weren’t even twenty men supporting us in both Mecca and Medina»


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 This is the reason why Imam Al-Hussain Q didn’t choose Mecca as the center to launch his revolution, since neither him, his brother Al-Hassan Q, or even their father Ali Q had a supporting base in Mecca.


Therefore, and after Imam Hussain’s Q arrival to Mecca, people amongst believing intellectuals and Pilgrims from other cities started coming to him. They used to sit around him, listen to his words, benefit from what they hear, and document what they may tell about it. Nevertheless, there were only few people from Mecca who didn’t belong to Quraish, but became residents after the battle to conquer Mecca. 

Imam Al-Hussain’s Q Movement in Mecca
All along the stay of Imam Al-Hussain Q in holy Mecca, he met diversified groups whereas to ideology, trends and thoughts, counting well known dignitaries within the Islamic Nation. They offered the Imam Q their advices, consultations and objections, each of whom according to the line of conduct of his trend, ideology and way of thinking. Though said consultations and objections differed in some of their details, they all met at the basis of reasoning and viewing of the subject. Thus all of them saw victory and triumph in giving in to the reign, as well as safety and security in this world, while viewing loss and defeat in to getting killed and deprived of shelter and living in distress and under oppression, if they rose against it. Yet, this was the basis of all their objections, consultations and advice. 
In the same time, Imam Al-Hussain Q was acting on the basis of profoundness logic that considered the base of his calculations is the destiny of both Islam and the Islamic Nation. He, also, adopted the logic of the evident arguments about his behaviors and the logic of consultations and advice. The Imam 


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 Q used to observe in his answers and replies, the nature of his addressee taking into consideration his intellectual capacity, his foresight level, and the degree of his loyalty towards the Prophet’s progeny R.


The Regime Stance towards the Movement of Imam Al-Hussain Q
By entering Mecca, Imam Al-Hussain Q broke through the first stage of the siege that Yazeed Bin Muawiya imposed over him in the Holy Medina, which was either pledging allegiance or facing death. The regime was overwhelmed by fear, when they heard that Imam Al-Hussain Q reached Mecca and got into the city during the days where crowds of intellectual erudite and pilgrims were coming to Mecca from all levels of the Islamic world’s countries. So they rushed in adopting the necessary measures, to sustain imposing once again, the siege over the movement of the Imam Q. Yazeed met the palace counselor «Sarjoun Al-Roumi» and their meeting concluded into addressing letters to some of the nation dignitaries, calling them to intervene and exert pressure over Imam Al-Hussain Q, further to deploy their best efforts to help the regime get rid of its great predicament. Other letters included threats and warnings to the people of Medina in general and to the remaining members of the Hashims, in particular, warning them about the impacts of joining the Imam Q and taking part in his movement.
Furthermore, one of the most important decisions of that meeting consisted in assassinating the Imam Q in Mecca.  The authority sent off a group of its mercenaries to accomplish such mission; since this clique wasn’t, though supported by the authority, able to arrest the Imam Q and send him captured to Damascus. 


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 The governor of Mecca, Amro Bin Said Bin Al-Aass, worked hard to carry out the commandments of Yazeed, who wanted him to murder Imam Al-Hussain Q wherever he finds him, even if he was holding to the mantles of the Holy Kaaba.

This fact was ascertained by Imam Al-Hussain Q when he told it to his brother Mohammad Bin Al-Hanafiah, who had followed him to Mecca:
«I was afraid that Yazeed might be able to assassinate me while I was inside Holy Mecca, and thus I would have become the reason for them to defile the sanctity of this holy place.»
Amro Bin Said Bin Al Aass started pursuing the Imam Q and tracking his every move. He was horrified by the flow of people coming to Imam Al-Hussain Q and the number of people surrounding him. Thus he lost his patience and found himself with no choice other than asking Imam Al-Hussain about the reason of his coming to Mecca. Yet the Imam Q replied: 
«I am seeking refuge by Allah and this Holy House!»
Amro did not accomplish the mission he was entrusted with, which was to arrest the Imam Q or to murder him, secretly or publicly, because the Imam Q enjoyed a full protection on one side, while Amro feared facing the Imam Q publicly and in front of all the pilgrims on the other side.
Imam Al-Hussain’s Q Message to the People of Basra:
Basra was, at that time, under the control of Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad, who was a strong tyrant ruler, having dominated the city affairs and subjected its people to hermetic stringent control.
Basra and Kufa were the two regions that did not completely 


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 pledge loyalty for the regime unlike Damascus. Thus the followers of the Prophet’s progeny P in these two cities, in spite of the terrorism and oppression, were holding secret meetings and assemblies. Yet, the difference between Kufa and Basra wasn’t limited to the number of supporters only, but also to the degree of their readiness to move and rise against the authority.


The Imam Q started to write to the people of Basra, through its nobility and its five directorates chiefs, whereas the city was divided into five directorates, each of which having a chief pertaining to the nobility. Some of them were leaning towards the authority, while some others were not trustworthy, and the remaining chiefs had no steady opinion towards any issue.
In spite of all the precedent, Imam Al-Hussain Q wanted to advise them all about the allegiance proof. The letter he addressed to them shows us how he Q was aware of his responsibility and willing to fulfill it to the best of his ability. The people of Basra did neither send him any letters, nor invite him to their homeland, as did the people of Kufa. Nevertheless, he wanted them to be aware of the inevitable confrontation. Thus, he wanted everyone to know that his decision to revive the essences of his religion and nation was emanated of the bottom of his soul and conscience and not due to the movement of Kufa People and their invitation. Within the frame of his letter, he intended to inform his supporters among the people of Basra about his rise, so they would mobilize accordingly, through their notable chiefs, taking place amongst the supporters of Imam Al-Hussain Q.
And the letter of Imam Hussain Q to the people of Basra said:


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 «I did send my messenger to you, along with this letter; I do call upon you to abide by Allah’s Book and the rules of his Prophet. Because such regulations were killed, while heresy is revived and if you hear what I have to say and obey my order I shall guide you to the right way».


He sent it with Suleiman Bin Razeen, because he Q used to trust and depend on him. Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad killed him, after the betrayal of Al-Munzer Bin Al-Jaroud Al-Abdy whose daughter Bahria, was Oubayed Allah’s wife, claiming that he feared that the letter might be sent by Oubayd Allah himself, thus the latter crucified the messenger. This is how the messenger of Imam Al-Hussain Q was killed, to be the first martyr of the Hussain’s Rise. It all happened one day before the departure of Oubayd Allah from Basra to assume the ruling authority of Kufa in accordance to Yazeed’s orders.
The Situation of the Partisans in Basra
Basra witnessed hesitation from most of the directorates’ chiefs and lack of support to Imam Al-Hussain Q further to witnessing them turning away from him, except for what Yazeed Bin Massoud Al-Nahshaly had done, whereas to stirring and guiding the tribal feelings, through combining them, in a smart way, with other religious feelings, aiming them towards the support of Imam Al-Hussain Q.
Nevertheless, what Basra had witnessed behind the scenes was very different of what was happening publicly. Some of the partisans, pertaining to various tribes, held a meeting on the basis of loyalty to the Prophet’s progeny R while repudiating their enemies. During the meeting they discussed the issue of Imam Al-Hussain Q and the impacts of the current situation, accordingly. They debated what they should do in accordance with their religious duty. Such meetings 


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 resulted into the departure of nine men, from the Basra people, in spite of all surveillance and strict barricades, hastening towards Noble Mecca, to join Al-Hussain’s Convoy. Yet, they were: Al-Hajjaj Bin Badr Al-Tamimi Al-Saady; Qaanab Bin Omar Al-Nemry, Yazeed Bin Thoubayt Al-Abdy and his two sons Abdullah and Oubaidullah; Al-Adham Bin Oumayya Al-Abdy, Seif Bin Malek Al-Abdy, Amer Bin Muslim Al-Abdy, and his servant Salim.


Imam Al-Hussain Q Meeting the Messengers of Al-Kufa People and their Delegates
When the people of Kufa learned that Imam Al-Hussain Q abstained from pledging allegiance to Yazeed, and that he left Medina and went to Mecca, their letters started flowing uninterruptedly towards Imam Hussain Q. They showed their readiness to support him and be with him in his rise. In their letters, they invited him to come to them, thus, the number of letters they sent reached 600 in one day.
All the messengers met at the house of Imam Al-Hussain Q. He read the letters as asked the last arriving messengers, Hani Bin Hani and Saeid Bin Abdullah:
«Tell me, who did unanimously agree upon the letter, that you are bringing to me?»
They named the people, who agreed to write this letter, counting: «Shabath Bin Rabih, Hajjar Bin Abjar, Yazeed Bin Al-Hareth, Ourwa Bin Qeiss, and Amro Bin Al-Hajjaj…»
Thereafter, Imam Al-Hussain Q stood up, performed the ritual ablution, and did a small prayer between the corner of the Holy Kaaba and the Maqam (Prophet’s Ibrahim footprint), he then gathered the messengers and said:


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 «Indeed, I have decided to move ahead with the plan, Allah has intended good for me, He is the relevant source, able to do it, with Allah’s will». 


Afterwards he wrote a letter to the people of Kufa and sent it with Hani and Saeid Bin Abdullah, and it said:
«In the Name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful. From Al-Hussain Bin Ali to the whole public amongst believers and Muslims. Indeed, Hani and Saeid came to me with your letters. They were the last, among your messengers, to come to me. I understood all what you told and mentioned to me, as well as your majority’s saying, stating that you have no Imam and asking me to come, asking Allah to have us meet together while agreeing upon the right and true faith. I do send to you both my brother and cousin who is a trust worthy person amongst my family, Muslim Bin Aqeel. Should he write to me that the majority of your people, among them the influential and leading intellectuals, all agreeing upon the issue submitted by your messengers and I read in your letters, I shall come to you imminently, if God wills. I swear by my life, that the Imam isn’t but the Ruler who abides by the Qur’an, and fulfills the prerequisites of the religion, he shall be just, condemning with reference to the righteous religion, and who devotes his soul and acts according to Allah’s volition, and may peace be on you.»
Imam Al-Hussain called his cousin, Muslim Bin Aqeel Bin Abi Taleb Q and sent him with with Qeiss Bin Mossahar Al-Sidawi, Umara Bin Abdullah Al-Salouli, Abdel Rahman and Abdullah Bin Shaddad Al-Arhabi. He ordered him «to be careful, move in secrecy and to be kind» Thus, if he found that the public unanimously agrees upon the Imam Q and is willing to support him, he shall hasten to inform the Imam Q.


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 The Imam Q gave Muslim < a letter; he closed it with his seal, which said:

«I am sending you to the people of Kufa and Allah shall decide for your mission what pleases and satisfies him. And I hope for me and you to reach the honorable degree of martyrdom. Go ahead, with Allah’s Blessing and Assistance, until you arrive to Kufa. Should you get inside it, accommodate yourself at its utmost trust worthy person, and do invite people to obey me. If you see that they are unanimously agreeing on pledging allegiance in my favor, do hasten to inform me, so I can act accordingly if Allah the Almighty wills!»
What is interesting in the will of Imam Al-Hussain Q to Muslim < is his order (to move in secrecy and to stick to kindness).  Keeping the issue secret doesn’t mean, within this frame, that Muslim < should adopt the complete secret working style while inviting people to obey the Imam Q because what appears clearly in the Imam’s statement:
«Do invite people to obey me!»
It is to work openly, and, yes, the issue requires for the starting point to be launched from within the loyal and trust worthy people, as indicated in the saying of the Imam Q:
«Should you get inside it, accommodate yourself at its utmost trust worthy person.»
This narration also reveals that the Imam Q implied to Muslim Bin Aqeel < that his mission shall be crowned by martyrdom, through his statement Q: 
«And I hope for me and you to reach the honorable degree of martyrdom.»
This indicates that Muslim realized from the Imam’s saying 


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 that he is heading towards martyrdom.


Muslim < left Mecca, on mid Ramadan, to arrive in Kufa on the fifth of Shawwal.
The Letter of Imam Al-Hussain Q to Mohammad Bin Al-Hanafiah
Imam Al-Hussain Q sent a brief letter to his brother Mohammad Bin Al-Hanafiah to dispatch to him each and every man amongst the Hashims, who is capable of fighting. Yet, its text herein follows:
«In the name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful, from Hussain Bin Ali to Mohammad Bin Ali and those who agree with him, amongst the Hashims, indeed, he who follows me, shall become a martyr, and he who doesn’t will not attain the blessed victory, and peace be with you».
A group of them joined him, and then Ibn Al Hanafiah followed them. Imam Al-Hussain Q informed the Prophet’s family R that he who amongst them follows him shall win martyrdom and those who don’t shall not realize the victory.
Imam Al Hussain Q did not mean by victory but the consequences of his rise and sacrifice whereas to breaching the bases of delusion, sweeping the voidance thorns away from the right path of the pure religion, further to establishing the pillars of justice and monotheism. Yet, to state that it is the Nation’s obligation to rise against the evil doing. 
The Letter Yazeed Bin Muawiya Sent to Imam Al-Hussain Q
Yazeed wrote a letter adjoined with some rhymes addressed especially to Imam Al-Hussain Q. He sent it from Damascus to Abdullah Bin Abbas, asking him to convince Imam Al Hussain Q not to rise against the regime, further to warning 


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 him about the negative impact accordingly, as he siad: «Your cousin Hussain and Ibn Al Zubair, the enemy of Allah, refused to pledge allegiance to me; they went to Mecca, preparing for tumult, exposing themselves to death. As for Ibn Al Zubair, he shall die and vanish, and tomorrow he shall face death by our sword. As for Al-Hussain, I wanted to alert and warn you, the Family of the Prophet, due to his behavior.»


Through his letter to Ibn Al-Abbas, Yazeed sought after many things, including but not limited to: 
1- Providing equilibrium between arising interest and intimidation. This shows the influence and implications of Serjoon Al-Roumi, the old sly, who has a long experience in psychological wars and dealing with political crises.
2- Adopting the same method used by his father against the opposition, where he warns about causing the nation to split and planting discord amongst Muslims taking them back to tumult.
3- Accusing Imam Al-Hussain Q that the aim of his rising is for the ruling position and the worldly gains. 
Thus, Yazeed asked Ibn Al-Abbas to promise Imam Al Hussain Q, in case he abandons his rise, security, prestigious position.
After having read the letter, the people of Median passed it to Imam Al-Hussain Q whose answer revealed complete disgrace to Yazeed, since in his reply, he did not even mention his name, nor give him any title or greetings, which reveals that Yazeed isn’t but the pure example of those liars who deny religion, prophets and their guardianship.
«In the Name of Allah the beneficent the Merciful, if they controvert you, do then say, I have my own duty and you do 


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 have yours. You are exempted away off my deed, while I’m innocent of yours, Peace».


Analects of the Two Speeches of Imam Al-Hussain in Mecca
Imam Al-Hussain Q stayed in Mecca about one hundred and twenty five days. During this whole period, history didn’t record but two speeches for the Imam Q which he delivered shortly before departing to Iraq, during the pilgrimage season.
The first speech was delivered on the eighth night of Thu- Elhejja. It aimed to announce his rise and invited people to join him.
The second one was different in contents and objectives, since it was limited to ethic signals, such as: 
«Tolerance is a grace, loyalty is an honor, having relationships is bliss whilst arrogance is rude. Rushing is silliness, ignorance is weakness, haughtiness is plight, accompanying the meanness people is evil, while accompanying immoral people is doubtful».
The first speech, herein, follows:
«Praised be Allah, and in accordance to Allah’s will, there is no power but with Allah, May Allah’s Peace be upon his Prophet. Death was destined on the Adam descendant just like the necklace on a girl’s chest. I am longing for my ancestors just like Jacob’s yearning for Joseph, a demise was chosen for me that I shall endure, as if my veins are torn by the wild beasts between Al-Nawawis and Karbala, wherein they shall voraciously fill empty paunches and famished stomachs; there is no avoidance or escape from such destined day. Allah’s consent is our contentment (we are the Prophet’s progeny). We 


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 patiently wait and handle any distress Allah decides upon us, and the Almighty grants us the remuneration of patient people. We shall not deviate from Allah’s Prophet P affinity, being a community at Al-Quds yard, with whom, he shall be delighted and accomplish his promise. Whoever, among you, is willing to sacrifice his heart for our sake and had trained his soul to long for the meeting of Allah, shall join us in our mission, because I shall depart in the early morning; if Allah, the Almighty, is willing.»


Imam Al Hussain Q compared the inevitability of the human being escaping the death coercion circle with the hermetic lock of a necklace adorning the neck of the girl, and comparing death to the necklace – which is used to beautify the girl- is a wonderful insinuation rendering death as a complementary step to a human being’s life path and it is the believer’s embellishment, especially within the frame of the move of destiny.  Since it is the passage for the believer from the exhaustion, enmity, distress, and affliction place to Paradise, the best reward and the place of eternal happiness. There is no doubt that Martyrdom, which is the most honorific and best way to die, is more appropriate for the adornment reality, than to death in its absolute meaning. Yet, it is only realized by the most fortunate person.
Furthermore, Imam Al-Hussain Q pointed out in his speech, that his demise is a divine decision which is surely not due to any oppression or enforcement, but it is an honor for the dignity of a religious obligation to be met, within certain difficult conditions, leading the Imam Q to head towards such demise as a way of worship and obedience to the orders of Allah the Almighty, whereas to enduring such religious duty, under such conditions.
He who contemplates about the details of the move of Imam 


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 Al-Hussain Q shall realize that he persevered telling and announcing his decease, since he was in Medina, as well as when he was in his way to Mecca, in addition to all the places he stopped at while heading to Iraq, in an attempt to screen Al-Hussain Convoy and to get rid of all those who aimed secular life, by following him. He did not get sufficed with that, but he even subjected the elite of his supporters to the same test, so that and by their steadiness their ranks would raise before the Almighty.


The Day of Departing Mecca: 
Muslim Bin Aqeel’s letter < arrived to Imam Al-Hussain Q twenty seven days earlier to his murder with Qaiss bin AlMoussahar. Yet, it included the answer Imam Al-Hussain Q was awaiting before heading to Kufa, including: 
«Greetings, the pioneer doesn’t impugn his kinsfolk. The majority of the Kufa People are with you, so when you read my Message, do come to us, Peace». 
In the light of Muslim’s < letter, Imam Al Hussain Q, definitely resolved to head to Kufa. Yet, he addressed his second letter to its people, some of it content was:
«I departed Mecca coming to your City, on Tuesday, on the eighth day of Thu El Hejja (Month), being the premeditation day (Tarweiah Day)».
Qeiss Bin Al Moussahar held the letter and took it to Kufa. But unfortunately, he was captured while still in his way. So he had to tear the letter to prevent Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad from reading it, before murdering him.
Why Departing from Mecca During the Pilgrimage Season?
The Imam Q felt the Authority’s swift and persistent 


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 efforts to murder him, regardless if they had to shed his blood in the sanctity of the ancient house. Accordingly, the truth would be deeply concealed due to the false rumors spread by Yazeed Bin Mouawiya, and thus the objectives of the Imam’s Q journey to Mecca would go in vain.  The Imam Q got into Mecca ritual consecrated state for minor pilgrimage but didn’t make the full pilgrimage rituals, because he knew that the tyrants will prevent him from accomplishing all his pilgrimage rituals!


The nature and date of the Imam’s Q first speech ascertains that his departure with the relevant convoy from Mecca wasn’t a secret, and that his convoy was relatively large, especially after all the Hashims had joined him from Medina, along with the supporters, partisans and Basra kinfolk, while all of them were fully prepared and ready for any possibility, at a time where the authority had no interest in confronting the Imam Q in a public war in Mecca or at its boundaries, because it knew that the Imam Q had a deeply significant sanctity and noble rank in the heart of all the pilgrims who were still in Mecca, at that time.
At the beginning, Amro Bin Saeid Bin Al-Aas attempted to prevent him from leaving, commanding his police force: «Do ride on every single camel existing between the sky and the earth, to get him!» This indicates that the Imam’s Q departure away from Mecca meant that his revolution was set free and released from the siege sought by the Umayyad authority, dominating as of Medina at first to shift then to Mecca.
But, due to the aggravation of the situation, he ordered his police forces to retreat and allow Imam Al Hussain Q to leave hasting, fearing for eventual changes that might occur in favor of the Imam Q.


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 Nevertheless, what is sure also, is that Imam Al Hussain’s Q convoy departed during the night.


Why Did Imam Al-Hussain Q Bring Women and Children Along with him?
When Imam Al Hussain Q was leaving Mecca, his brother Mohammad Bin Al-Hanafiah came to him, and held his camel bridle and said:
«Brother, haven’t you promised me to consider the issue I asked you?»
The Imam Q answered: «Yes»
Mohammad then said: «So, what urged you to depart hasting?»
The Imam Q answered: «After I had left you, the Messenger of Allah P came to me and said: «Hussain, do leave, it is Allah’s wish to see you killed!  (Martyr)»
Mohammad Bin AL Hanafiah Said: «To Allah we belong and to Him we shall return!  So what’s the meaning of taking these women along with you, while leaving under such circumstances?»
The Imam Q said: «He said to me that Allah wants to see them captured!»
The Imam Q justified the accompanying of his family and women in his trip as an act of obedience and submission to Allah’s, the Almighty, will. He pointed to that in Medina, when he was talking to Om Salama»
«Mater, Allah the Almighty wants to see me killed, slaughtered and massacred in an unfair and aggressive way, and Allah’s will is to see my wives, family and people itinerant!»


Chapter Two: The beginning of Al-Hussain’s Uprising

 Allah wanted form this convoy of captured women to be the great procession of intimation and publicity, after the death of Imam Hussain Q because without them, Al-Hussain’s revolution would not have realized its foreseen objectives, in that time or in the following eras.


Thus, the accompanying of the Imam Q for the Prophet’s consignment (women and children) with him was one of the necessities for the success of Al-Hussain’s revolution. It was inevitable for him to do so, even if there were no possibility for these women and children to be exposed to any harm or imprisonment had they stayed in Medina or Mecca, indeed, this eventuality was highly possible. Yet, the day of the Imam’s Q departure coincided with the eighth of Thu El Hejja
Why Iraq?
The Imam Q had already announced to his family Q and to his partisans that his final destination was to head to the land of Iraq, while he was still in Medina. This truth is beneficial to the historical analysis, in addition to the ideological dimension, ascertaining that the Imam Q was aware of the details of all what he was to go through, by a divine science and knowledge, since he was an Imam. Due to his political and sociological awareness, he foresaw that Iraq was the best land for him to choose as a scene for the confrontation and decisive battle between him and the authority. Since Kufa was alike the actual and effective capital of the Islamic World, due to being the center of the most important military weigh, whereas it was the point of start and settlement of most wars. Indeed, the events used to occur therein used to affect the whole Islamic world.


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 Chapter three:

Kufa ’s Events[1] 
The people of Kufa went on writing to Imam Al-Hussain Q right after the martyrdom of Imam Al Hassan Q pledging obedience to him, and calling him to oppose and rise against the governing authority. Thus, when they learned that Yazeed laid his hands on the Muslims Emirate or ruling office, they wrote to the Imam Q and pledged allegiance in his favor.  Amongst their letters:
«We are sparing allegiance for you only, we are not attending prayers with the authority’s loyalist, and we ask that you come to us, we are almost one hundred thousand men. Injustice has spread, subjecting us to rules neither provided in the book (Holy Qur’an) nor imposed by its Prophet’s rules. We hope that Allah will allow us to meet with you on the truth, and thus relieve us from oppression. You are the rightful party for the reign, instead of Yazeed who had forcefully taken the tax money that belonged to the nation; drinks alcohol, plays with monkeys and lute, and manipulate religion». 

[1]  - The majority of the events happening in Kufa occurred while Muslim Bin Aqeel (VI) was there, within during the days where Imam Al-Hussain Q was in Mecca. But due to the distinctive characteristic of this period in Kufa, its sensitiveness, the acceleration of events, and importance of demonstrating it with full details, it was necessary to talk about it aside from the movement of Imam Al Hussain Q  movement in Mecca. This is why we had made such citation.


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 Nevertheless, only few of them were honest, since they were in a stage of psychological paralysis, schizophrenic personalities, where their love and attachment to the worldly life and death hatred was well spread out in their life, in addition to the letters from the sick hearted, hypocrites, who had sent letters to the Imam Q pledging allegiance to him, claiming obedience and readiness to support him. Imam Al-Hussain Q dispatched to them his ambassador, Muslim Bin Aqeel <, in order to pave the path of his rise, and so if he felt their honesty and sincerity, accordingly, the Imam shall head to them accepting their invitation. 


Muslim Bin Aqeel <
He is Muslim Bin Aqeel Bin Abi Taleb <. He was amongst the companions of Imam Ali, Imam Hassan and Imam Al-Hussain P and of their soldiers.  He married Rukaya, the daughter of Imam Ali Q.
It is said that, Imam Ali Q said to Allah’s Prophet P:
«O, Prophet of Allah, you indeed do love Aqeel»
And the Prophet P answered:
«I love him, but he gets more of my love due to Abi Taleb’s love for him, and his son shall be killed for the love of yours….»
Muslim < was a noble example of Islamic ethics, especially when it comes to braveness, boldness and sturdiness. He was so strong that he would grab the man with one hand and throw him over the house. 
Muslim’s < Arrival in Kufa
Muslim < arrived in Kufa, on the fifth of Shawwal, and to stick to the recommendations of Imam Al-Hussain, it was of 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 an utmost necessity for him to be accommodated in the place of «the Most trustworthy person amongst its kinfolks» that we are not able to certainly determine, but most probably, he was lodged at Awsajah’s house which might be the residence of Martyr Muslim Bin Awsajah or his father. It’s also reported that he was lodged at the Moukhtar residence, and it seems that they are referring to the house that later on was called the Moukhtar residence.


Al-Noaman Bin Bashir
The governor of Kufa was Alnoaman bin Bashir when Muslim Bin Aqeel < arrived there. He is counted among the «Ansar» (The people of Medina). He, like his father, had a bad history in serving the Umayyad Regime; he remained hostile to the progeny of the Prophet Q till his death. Al-Noaman used to publicly state his hatred towards Imam Ali Q, badmouth him, and he fought against him. He also led some terrorizing wars on some of the regions of Iraq that were loyal to the family of the Prophet P.
Indeed, the lenient position of Al-Noaman, consequently to Muslim Bin Aqeel< arrival in Kufa, was due to him adopting Muawiya’s way of governing, who used to avoid any public confrontation with Imam Al-Hussain Q, not because of his love for the Imam Q but due to Muawiya’s slyness. Therefore, the position of Al-Noaman whereas to the revolutionaries and the rebellions appeared to be lenient and tolerant, because he used to think- as believing in Muawiya’s point of view- that a public confrontation wasn’t in favor of the ruling regime.
Muslim < and the Community of Kufa
The Shia of that time (the partisans of the Imam Q) started coming to Muslim Bin Aqeel < , complaining to him 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 their situation.  Whenever few of them gather at his place, he used to read them the letter of Imam Al-Hussain Q, while they went weeping, and then he used to say: 

«Do rise with my cousin, pledge him allegiance, support him and don’t let him down!»
The Shia meetings went on with Muslim Bin Aqeel < until the number of people pledging allegiance to Imam Hussain Q reached eighteen thousand men, as they wept and said: 
«By Allah, we shall hit with our swords between his hands, until we all die».
During the first meeting of Muslim <  with the people pledging allegiance, a steady phenomenon appeared out of the trends of the Kufa community: it was the rarity of honest believers among the people who are free of psychological paralysis, schizophrenia, love for the worldly life, and hatred for death. Though allegiance pledging people were numerous, only three of them showed Muslim < their full readiness to sacrifice themselves for the sake of Islam; yet, they were: Aabes Bin Abi Shebib, who told Muslim <  after thanking and praising Allah:
«I shall not talk to you about other people; I don’t know what is inside their hearts and what they might have deceived you with, but I do tell you what I trained my soul for, By Allah, I shall surely answer your call and fight with you against your enemy, my sword shall vibrate acting and fighting to defend you till I meet Allah!».
Then Habib Bin Muthaher < said: «May Allah Have Mercy on you, and I, By Allah who there is no God but him, shall do the same as he said». 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 Then, Saeid Bin Abdullah Al-Hanafi (May Allah be pleased with him) spoke similar to Abes and Habib.

The second phenomenon, that came out this meeting, being the largest and most vivid amongst Kufa communities’ characteristic, refers to the group of people who loves the truth but not willing to sacrifice for its sake.
When Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) realized such allegiance pledging by the people, he wrote to Imam Al-Hussain Q, whose decision to head to Kufa was to be based on Muslim’s report, asking him to come. Muslim dispatched the letter with Qeiss Bin Moussahar Assaidawi, and asked Aabes Bin Abi Shabib Ashakiri and his servant Shawthaba to accompany him. 
The Political Consequences of Muslim’s (May Allah be pleased with him) Move in Kufa
When Al-Noaman Bin Bashir saw Kufa’s great welcoming to Muslim and intense hospitality, he addressed the people warning them of provoking commotion, dissension and causing the nation’s division. In the meantime, spies were reporting to Yazeed about the feeble positioning of Kufa’s governor Al Noaman, whereas to confronting the changes arising due to the presence of Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) there, within a time when apparently Kufa did or almost did fall in the hands of Imam Al-Hussain’s Q Ambassador. Yet, the only lacking element to realize such loss, consisted in the order to be given by Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) declaring the revolution and change. But Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) abided by the limits of his power, as Imam Al-Hussain Q determined. 
As soon as Yazeed knew about Kufa events, he became overwhelmed with strong panic and distress, due to the long history of opposition this city represents to the Umayyad Regime. At that very moment, Sarjoun Al-Roumi confessed 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 to him what Muawiya would have done, should he not been stroke by death: he wanted to vest in Oubayed Allah Bin Ziad, the governorate of Kufa and the only man who could with his tyrant violence restrain the people revolution, especially that they were already frightened. Thus Sarjoun produced the letter of Muawiya, which he kept, and showed it to Yazeed at that opportune moment. Accordingly Yazeed overcame his hatred towards Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad, and wrote to him to haste and assume Kufa’s Government.

If Sarjoun was honest about imputing the letter to Muawiya, this would be a confirmation of Muawiya’s plan to murder Imam Al-Hussain Q. Nevertheless, if Sarjoun was the one who wrote the letter but imputed it to Muawiya, it shall be an indication of the Roumi’s scope of intervention in manipulating the Muslim’s destiny.
Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad
He was born in 20 A.H. His mother is Merjana Al-Majusiah (Magus). His father is Ziad Bin Abih, who violently wrecked havoc against the Prophet’s family and descendants R while in the beginning he used to have compassion for them. However, he turned against them as the Soufians called him to serve them. Muawiya granted him Khourasan government in 54 A.H. Afterwards he ruled over Basra in 55 A.H. He was dark hearted, never getting satiated of food. 
He was a pervert, unjust, and a coward person. He was raised up under the shadows of the Soufian pride. Such fictive affiliation stirred up his heavy rancor’s flames, against the Prophet’s progeny R. When Imam Al-Hussain Q departed towards Kufa, Yazeed wrote to Oubayd Allah saying:
«I was informed that Hussain marched to Kufa. This is a distress occurring in your ruling time aside from any other


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 time, and on your land aside from other cities. You are the one, amongst all governors, who has to confront with him, because with him you’ll either be freed or restore your slave status».


Oubayd Allah kept on justifying his murdering of Imam Al-Hussain Q in front of the people of Basra by saying that Yazeed threatened him of withdrawing his filiation’s pedigree. When Yazeed died, Oubayd Allah seduced some of the Basra’s people to pledge him allegiance, afterwards his cowardice prevented him from confronting the people.  He then hid and later ran away to Damascus, till he was killed by Ibrahim Bin Malik Al-Ashtar by a sword strike that split him into halves, this was on Ashura of year 67 A.H.
Oubayd Allah Becoming Kufa’s Governor
Shortly before the departure of Oubayed Allah to Kufa he knew about the letter of Imam Al-Hussain Q to the people of Basra, wherein he calls them to join and support him in his rise. So, he killed the Imam’s Q messenger, Souleiman Bin Razin. Then he stood onto the rostrum of Basra, while his heart was trembling of fear that the people of Basra might comply with the call of the Imam Q. Thus, he addressed them with an intimidating speech full of threats, and he warned about the dispute, announcing the appointment of his brother Othman as their Governor.
He came to Kufa, surrounded with an army of his family and relatives. When he entered Kufa, he was wearing a black Turban, while veiled, thus whenever he passed by a group of people, they thought he was Imam Al-Hussain Q. So, they used to stand up for him, acclaiming him and saying: «Welcome, O’ the son of Allah’s Messenger, your coming isn’t but for good doing.» However, as soon as he got into the castle, people learned that he was Ibn Ziad. 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 When Ibn – Ziad had rested, he ordered people to gather in the Mosque, calling them for an aggregation prayer. When people gathered, he came out to them, thanked and praised Allah, and said:


«Greetings, the Caliph, May Allah restore his good condition, appointed me as the Governor of your county and borders.  He ordered me to be fair and relief those who amongst you underwent injustice, further to being generous with the deprived amongst the divested people; and to kindly act towards those who listen and obey, while to be stringent against those who are suspicious and disobedient. I will obey his orders while governing you, and I will execute his promises as well. I shall be for those obeying and well doers amongst you as a good father, while my whip and my sword will be mastering those who neglect my order and infringe my engagement or promise.»
He asked the registrars to put down a list of the foreigners amongst the people sojourning in Kufa, and to point out those who do not support Yazeed. Working as a registrar at that time was a well known official position, it helps the governors to know their people and how they could distribute the donations out of the treasury house. Kufa had almost one hundred registrars. The state depended on the registrars to organize public records and to figure the number and names of all men, women and children.  They played an important role driving the people away from Muslim Bin Aqeel (May Allah be pleased with him) and spreading terrorism amongst them. They were also an effective element in pushing the people to fight Imam Hussain Q.
Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him)  and the Secret Call 
After the arrival of Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad to Kufa, as a governor appointed by Yazeed, and due to the consecutive 


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 fast acceleration of events, it became necessary to transfer Muslim’s (May Allah be pleased with him) mission from its public status to working in secrecy. He was obliged to change his residence, so, he left the house where he was accommodated, to end up at Hani Bin Ourwa Al-Muradi’s.  


Hani was one of Kufa’s dignitaries, an elite leader of the Shia. He also was the Sheikh and Chief of Mourad (Tribe). It is told that he could be contemporaneous with the Messenger of Allah P and had the honor of being amongst his companions. The Shia people started coming to him, at Hani’s residence, under cover, so that Oubayad Allah doesn’t know about them. They requested confidentiality of each other. Hani used to collect weapons and gather people to support Muslim.  
The Imprisonment of the Opposition Partisans, Killing them and Spying on Muslim
When Ibn Ziad got saw the correspondence of the Kufa people with Imam Al-Hussain Q and that they pledged allegiance to him, he imprisoned four thousand and five hundred men, amongst those were the Tawwabean (repentance), who were amongst the companions of the Prince of the believers, Imam Ali Q. Some of those heroes who struggled hard with him were:  Ibrahim Bin Malek Al-Ashtar; Abdullah Bin Al Harith, Soleiman Bin Sard Al-Khozaey as well as many other notables and noble partisans. He ordered to call for Al-Mukhtar Al-Thaqafi and Abdullah Bin Al Hareth. And he imprisoned them as soon as they came. He killed Maytham Al-Tammar, who had a special place before the Prophet’s Progeny R.
He shoved spies into the alleys of Kufa and between its houses, to search for Ibn Aqeel. He called one of his servants, the so-called Makkal, gave him three thousand dirham, and ordered him to search for Muslim Bin Aqeel (May Allah be pleased with him)  and to follow 


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 his companions, asking him to give the money to either one of the supporters or any group of them, as a form of donation to assist with the preparation to rise and fight against their enemy (Oubayd Allah).


Maakal carried out the order he received. He came to the greatest mosque and sat near Muslim Bin Awsajah while the latter was praying, thus after hearing the people there pointing out to him and saying that he’s pledging allegiance in favor of Al-Hussain Q. When Ibn Awsajah finished his prayers, Maakal told him that he was for Homs (a city in Syria) and that Allah gave him the grace to love the family of the Prophet R. He feinted crying, then gave the money saying: «I wanted, to give it to a man amongst the family of the Prophet R, I was told that he came to Kufa and that he is asking allegiance to the son of the daughter of the Messenger of Allah P, but I couldn’t find anyone who may take me to him, and I don’t know where he is. I heard a group of believers pointing to you and saying that you have a relationship with him».
At the beginning, Ibn Awsajah denied that, but when Maakal showed his devotion towards the Imam Al-Hussain Q Muslim obtained from him intense promises; then, he told him that he was going to obtain permission from Ibn Aqeel allowing him to pledge allegiance. The permission was granted, Muslim ordered to take the money for purchasing weapons.  Since then, Maakal was the first one to come to the Muslim’s meeting place and the last one to leave it, in order to report all news, step by step to Ibn Ziad.
Ibn Ziad at the House of Hani Bin Ourwa (May Allah be pleased with him) 
While Muslim was at Hani Bin Ourwa’s home, Sharik Bin Al-Awar, got seriously sick, he was one of the Basra men who strongly supported the family of the Prophet R, and he 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 came to Kufa along with Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad. He fell sick one week after his arrival, so he stayed at Hani Bin Ourwa’s residence. Then, Obayd Allah informed the ill man that he was coming to visit him. Sharik then said to Muslim: 


«This debauchee is coming this evening to visit me. If he sits, come out and kill him, then go and stay in the castle, there shall be nothing preventing you from doing so. When I recover, I shall go to Basra and do my best to protect you from its interference
When it was evening time, Oubayd Allah arrived, so Muslim went inside a room to hide, and said to Sharik: «Don’t miss him when he sits!»
Hani Bin Ourwa said: «I don’t like that he gets killed in my house!» 
Oubayd Allah came and sat. He asked Sharik about his illness and stayed there for a long time. When Sharik saw that Muslim lingered to come out, he feared to miss killing him, so he started saying:
«Waiting for Salama isn’t for cheering her 
Do greet Souleima and greet those cheering her»
He reiterated that rhyme for two or three times, so Oubayd Allah asked about his matter, thinking that he was hallucinating! Hani told him: «Yes, this has been his situation since early morning and till now!»  So Oubayd Allah left. It is told that when Sharik repeated the poetry, Mahran, the close and accredited servant of Oubayd Allah, understood it. He discretely made an eye wink to Oubayd Allah and the latter got up to leave.
At that moment, Sharik told him: «Prince I would like to tell 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 you my will!»  Obayd Allah said: «I shall come to you another time». Mahran then told his Master: «He wanted to kill you!»


Ibn Ziad said: «How come, despite me honoring him and at Hanis place?»
Mahran said: «The truth is what I told you».
When Ibn Ziad left, Muslim Bin Aqeel (May Allah be pleased with him) , came out and Sharik asked him: «What stopped you from killing him?»
Muslim said: «Due to Hanis whish not to see him killed in his house!»
There was another reason as well, for Muslim not to kill Oubayd Allah, which is the Prophet’s Family R insistence on keeping what is right and honest while rejecting perfidy and deception, even upon need. No observer thought, at that time, that it was possible to throw Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad out of Kufa at any moment. What happened was out of any considerations and which explanation shall be long. Yet, Sharik passed away three days later. 
Ibn Ziad Arresting Hani Bin Ourwa (May Allah be pleased with him) 
Hani Bin Ourwa Al-Mouradi (May Allah be pleased with him) was, due to his social and political awareness, expecting something bad from Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad, in spite of the secrecy and concealment under which Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) held his meetings with his followers and supporters at Hani’s place, and in spite of the promises to keep everything sealed, since Hani knew that the utmost and absolute concern of Ibn Ziad was to know the place of Muslim. He pretended illness after the decease of Sharik and abstained from going to the castle. Ibn Ziad missed him, so he sent to him Amro Bin Al Hajjaj (who counts amongst those who wrote to the Imam Q asking for him. Amro’s daughter 


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 was Hani’s wife); Hassan Bin Khauja and Mohammad Bin Al Ashaath, to visit Hani and to bring him forward.  However, Hani accompanied them reluctantly. Shortly before arriving to the Castle, Hani confessed to Hassan his concern about such demand. The latter assured Hani even though he had no idea why Ibn Ziad wanted Hani in the first place. Hani went to Oubayd Allah who was accompanied by Shuraih Al-Qadi the judge, and some other men. Oubayd Allah asked him about Muslim Bin Aqeel. Hani denied knowing anything about Muslim’s place. At that moment, Oubayd Allah called Maakal who came and stood in front of him, he then told him about everything he saw at Hani’s place. A sharp argument erupted between Hani and Oubayd Allah that entailed by Oubayd Allah hitting Hani on the face.


Meanwhile, Mez-Haj tribe learned what happened to its chief. All its knights came and surrounded the castle asking for the release of Hani. Then, Amro Bin Al Hajjaj came out to them, after a deliberation with both Ibn Ziad an Shuraih Al-Qadi, and he told them that their chief was all right and that the prince didn’t want to harm him, and he asked them all to leave, and so they did.  Here appears the great betrayal role of Amro Bin Al Hajjaj towards Hani, since he was the main reason that hindered rescuing Hani from captivity and securing his safety. He remained a partisan of Oubayd Allah, even after the murder of Hani, whom Oubayd Allah threw from the height of the castle after decapitating him.
The Martyrdom of Abdullah Bin Bouqtor (May Allah be pleased with him) 
When Muslim Bin Aqeel felt that Kufa people let him down, he addressed a letter to Imam Al-Hussain Q with Abdullah Bin Bouqtor, telling him about the current situation, whereas to splitting and letting him down. But, Al-Hussain Bin Noumayr arrested Bin Bouqtor, while he was getting out 


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 of Kufa. He brought him forward to Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad, who ordered him to be killed and thrown from the roof of the principality castle.


The Rise of Muslim Bin Aqeel (May Allah be pleased with him)
Arresting Hani was, according to the calculations of Ibn Ziad, the second successful step after his first step was to break the revolutionary movement from inside. Whereas to Muslim Bin Aqeel, this fact was considered a critical and dangerous change, urging him to deviate from the line initially drawn.  He was obliged to make an exceptional decision, because he found himself in front of two choices only:
The first one: To keep the mobilization and preparations going on, despite the incapacity to do so, since Ibn Ziad had arrested Hani, who was the strongest and most notable personality in Kufa; in reference to the tribal side, notwithstanding his social and religious prominence, which means that any other personality who might support Ibn Aqeel shall be arrested.
The second: to move before fulfilling the conditions being subject to the coercion of necessity and obligation for a decisive confrontation with the local authority.
Muslim called for a meeting with the chiefs of the tribes, being: Kinda, Mezhaj, Tamim, Assad, Modar and Hamadan. People called each other and met under his roof. Thus Muslim and his companions went to the castle outskirts; it is said that they were four thousand men, but those who reached the castle with Muslim were three hundred only!
At that moment, Ibn Ziad ordered to close the castle’s gates and doors, keeping him and the people who were amongst the noblemen, his police force and family inside. They all counted 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 two hundred men; they went to the castle’s fence and started shooting rocks and arrows on Muslim and his companions.


While war erupted outside the castle under the leadership of Muslim Bin Aqeel (May Allah be pleased with him), Ibn Ziad retracted and secluded himself in the castle, fearing and thinking about the stratagem that will rescue him out of such dire situation. He used the noblemen that were accompanying him and asked them to go out to the people and convince them to stop the support of Muslim. Thus Kathir Bin Sheba Al Harithy went heading for Mezhaj tribe intimidating them and warning them about the punishment of the ruling power. Mohammad Bin Al Ashaath addressed to those who obey him, being of Kinda and Hadramouth tribes. He lifted up safety banner in favor of those who came to him. 
Some dignitaries were also arrested inside the castle, such as Abd Al Aala Bin Yazeed and Oummara Bin Salkhab.
Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) knew that the troops of Ibn Ziad started obliging people to let him down. They also went on arresting the fighters who were coming to support him, within the allies of Kufa. Muslim’s troops, despite their small number, defeated all the assemblies sent by Ibn Ziad to lift up the safety banners and oblige people to let him down. They all went back to the castle in a hurry. Though Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) won the first battle that occurred around the castle, he did not plunge into it for many reasons, upon which we underline the following:
1-The castle was protected in a way enabling it to resist for a long time, exceeding many months, as it happened during the era of Al-Moukhtar.
2-Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) felt that people were letting him down, when he saw them leaving him while he was heading to the castle , since their march started with four thousand men, but ended with three hundred only!


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 3-The Mezhej tribe retreat, while Hani remained a hostage, had a very negative impact, especially after the tribe’s unanimous agreement to save him. They let him down and came back, and thus people saw that the strongest tribe in Kufa could do nothing to release its chief. 


4-Muslim’s supporting troops, being at Kufa boundaries, couldn’t join him, alike the regiment led by Al-Moukhtar (before being imprisoned) and the regiment of Abdullah Bin Harith, till after the people had moved away from Muslim. Al-Mukhtar then pretended coming to protect Ibn Harith, but, Ibn Ziad ordered to arrest him and threw him in jail. 
Ibn Ziad got assured that people had abandoned Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him), since the men of people of Kufa used to come to his son, brother and cousin to say: «Go away, those people are leaving you.»
Similarly, women used to come to their sons, husbands and brothers hold to them till they come back. They went telling each other: «why are we hastening the diligent?  Soon, crowds of Damascus army shall arrive. We have to stay home and leave those people until Allah brings them together and defeats their separation.» Also, the «Damascus Army» or «Damascus Soldiers» expression had a tremendous effect in intimidating all of the people of Kufa, due to the distress and bitterness they were suffered from this army.  Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad and his companions went out to the Mosque where they sat before darkness.  Amro Bin Nafeh called: «That they will pursue any person being a policeman, a registrars, or a fighting soldier if he is recites his evening prayer anywhere other than in the Mosque.»  Within less than an hour, the Mosque got full with people. Oubayd Allah performed the ritual prayer; then he addressed the people and threatened to kill anyone who he finds 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 Muslim hiding at his place, and he who brings him forward shall obtain a monetary reward. He ordered Hussayne Bin Noumayr to search for him in the houses till he finds him.


Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) Alone in Kufa.
It was normal for the people of Kufa to fail to follow Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) because the Shia, belonging to different tribes, did not have any common leader to go back to in their issues especially during the period post Imam Al-Hassan Q, even though the Shia had many noble men and dignitaries, but each one of them had influence on his tribe only.
Furthermore, the social situation that was prevailing in Kufa was the offspring of bitter oppression they underwent. All long the years, great fear became inculcated amongst people. They got used to be afraid of the ruler ascendancy, while mutual lack of confidence and safety dominated their behavior towards each other
In the evening, Ibn Aqeel (May Allah be pleased with him) performed his Magrib prayer, while only thirty men surrounded him in the mosque. When he realized that only thirty of the elite men were with him, he went out towards the doors of Kinda tribe. Upon arriving there, his men became ten, but when he crossed the door he was alone, and no one was there to even show him the road. 
The separation of such elite troops individually first to disappear afterward, wasn’t but for grasping the opportunity to join the convoy of Imam Al-Hussain Q that was coming to Iraq. 
Muslim was the one who gave them such order, because these few men are among the elite, courageous believers, who were all blessed with gaining martyrdom while fighting along with Imam Al-Hussain Q.  Yet, we mention Muslim Bin 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 Awasajah, Abou Thamamah Al Saeadi, Abdullah Bin al Zuhair Al Kindi, Abbas Bin Jaad Al-Jadli, Abdullah Bin Hazim Al Bakri, and others.


Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) at Tawaa’s House
Muslim walked until he reached the house of Tawaa, the wife of Ousayd Al-Houdrami, where she was waiting for her son Bilal. Muslim asked her for water. She brought the jar and gave it to him to drink. Then she went inside the house to put it back, and when she came out, she saw Muslim sitting at the house door, so she asked him:
«O, Servant of Allah, Didn’t you drink?
He said: «Yes, indeed.»
She replied: «Then go to your people.»
Muslim kept silent. Then she repeated it, but he remained silent.
She said: «Glory is to Allah! You servant of Allah, go to your people, may Allah protect you, sitting at my door isn’t plausible for you and I don’t allow it.»
Muslim then stood up and said: «O, (female) servant of God, I have no place to go to in this country , neither do I have a tribe, could you do me a favor, and I might reward you for it on the resurrection day?»
She said: «What is it, Servant of God!»
He said: «I am Muslim Bin Aqeel; those people lied to me and deserted me
When she knew who he was, she accompanied him to a house other than the one wherein she was dwelling. She 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 prepared him a bed and offered him dinner, but he didn’t eat. When her son arrived, he saw her going out and in the house frequently, thus he asked her about her reason for that. She avoided answering, but upon his insistence, she asked him to keep what she was going to tell him to himself and obtained from him a holy oath not to tell anyone, then she told him about Muslim.


Early next morning, Bilal went to Abdel Rahman Bin Mohammad Bin Al-Ashaath and told him about the place where Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) was hiding. When Bin Ziad knew about it, he ordered Ibn Harith to take with him one hundred men of Quraish and go to him; he didn’t want to send men from any tribe but Quraish because he feared for tribalism spirit to be ignited!

Muslim’s (May Allah be pleased with him) Last Night
Muslim Bin Aqeel refused to eat anything during his last night of being alive. He adhered to spend his last night while worshiping, invoking Allah and reading the Qur’an. He stayed up all night long, while standing up, bowing, prostrating, praying, and appealing to Allah till the morning. However, due to his fatigue from the fight during the day, he fell asleep for a moment, where he saw, in the world of dreams, his uncle, the Master of Believers, Ali Q who presaged him about his swift joining of those who preceded him to the high levels of Heaven.
Then, Tawaa came to Muslim and brought him water to do ablution for Fajer prayer.
She said: «Master, I see that you didn’t sleep tonight»
He said: «Do know that I fell asleep for a moment, and I saw in my dream my uncle, the Master of Believers Q saying: 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 «Hasten, hasten… hurry … hurry! I believe that today is my last day in this worldly life.»


The Capture of Muslim Bin Aqeel (May Allah be pleased with him)
In the morning, Muslim Bin Aqeel (May Allah be pleased with him) heard the sound of the horses’ hooves and men’s yelling.  He then knew that they are coming for him. Thus he held his sword, while the outer horde was throwing stones at the house and setting fire in numerous parts of the canes.
Muslim smiled and said:
«My soul, go out and face the death which may neither be avoided nor be escaped from.»
Then He addressed to Tawaa:
«Truly, May Allah Have Mercy on you and May He reward you for helping me, do Know that they are after me due to your son’s slander.» 
She opened the door for Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) to go out to face the people as if he was an enraged lion!  He started fighting them with his sword, till he killed a group of them.
Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad was informed of what happened, so he spoke to Mohammad Ibn Al-Ashaath saying: «Praised be Allah, O, servant of Allah! We sent you out to defeat one man only, and he ends up defeating you and your men such dishonoring defeat!»
Mohammad Bin Al-Ashaath replied: «O Prince, don’t you know that you have sent me to a fierce Lion and a strong fighter!»
Ibn Ziad then, asked Ibn Al Ashaath, to grant Muslim safeguard, because he wasn’t capable of fighting against him.


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 Thus Ibn Al-Ashaath went on saying to Muslim: «Woe unto you Ibn Aqeel! Don’t kill yourself, you are safe, we give you our word!»


Muslim replied «I don’t need the safeguard of the deceitful»
Then, he started fighting against them and saying:
«I had swore not to be killed but a free man,
 Even though, death to me is like drinking from a bitter cup»
Ibn Al-Ashaath called him: «Woe to you Ibn Aqeel! You may neither be lied to nor misled! These people aren’t going to kill you, so don’t kill yourself!»
Muslim didn’t pay any attention to Ibn Al-Ashaath’s speech, but went on fighting until he was deeply wounded, loosing thus strength to fight. Then, they congregated against him and started throwing him with arrows and stones. 
Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) then said:
«Hell is to you! Why are you throwing me with stones such like you throw infidels, while I belong to the House of devoted Prophets?
Woe to you, don’t you have consideration to the Prophet of Allah P and his posterity?»
He resumed fighting them despite his weakness till he pushed them away from him.  Ibn Al-Ashaath then shouted to the people: «Leave him, so that I can talk to him and see what he wants». He got closer to Muslim and said: «Woe to you Ibn Aqeel, don’t kill yourself, you are safe and your blood shall be my responsibility»


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) then replied: «O, Ibn Al-Ashaath, do think that I’m going to surrender? Never, while I’m still able to fight; No by Allah! This shall never happen!»


Then Muslim started fighting him till he went back to his troops. Muslim returned to his base and said: «O Allah! Thirst is deeply affecting me!»
No one dared giving him water. So Ibn Al-Ashaath came to his fellow men and said: «Woe to you! This isn’t but shame and failure that you are afraid of one man in such a way! Do attack him all together, in one raid.»
So they all attacked him, then Bakir Bin Hamran Al-Ahmari hit him on his upper lip, so Muslim defended himself and hit Bakri with a deadly stroke. They went on till Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) got stabbed from his back, and he fell down, and thus they took away his weapon and dragged him as a prisoner to Oubayd Allah.  At that moment, he looked hopeless, and so his eyes started to tear. Amro Bin Oubayd Allah, who was non-aligned, looked at him and said: «He, who seeks what you seek, does not cry when being afflicted as you are»
Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) answered: 
«Allah is my witness! I’m not crying for myself, neither I am deploring it, even though I do not wish to die, but I’m mourning my coming family! I am crying for Al-Hussain and his close family!»
The Martyrdom of Muslim Bin Aqeel (May Allah be pleased with him)
When Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) came facing Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad, the guards told him: «Do greet the Prince!»


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) replied:

«Keep silent; may your mother mourn you, what do you have to do with the rules of speaking? By Allah! For me, he isn’t my prince for me to greet him!»
Ibn Ziad said: «Never mind, should you greet or not, either way you shall be killed!»
Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) said:
«You killing me is not strange, since a person more evil than you had killed someone much better than me before!» 
A long argument erupted between them both; till Oubayd Allah ended accusing Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) of having scattered Muslims’ unity in Kufa and disclaimed them. 
Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) answered:
«This is not the reason I came to this land. But you populated wrong doing and buried kindness. You assumed reign without the people’s consent, and you governed them in contrary to Allah’s orders. You behaved towards them like Kesra and Caesar. Thus we came to them to order kindness, prohibit wrong doing, and to call them to the rulings of Allah’s Book and the Prophet’s.»
Afterwards, Oubayd Allah called a man from Damascus, whom Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) had stroked him on his head before. He (Oubayd Allah) asked him to take Muslim to the roof and kill him. Thus Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him) was taken to the roof, while he was glorifying Allah and asking for his forgiveness. He said:
«O Allah, be the Judge between us and the people who deceived and abandoned us».


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 He was ongoing with such invocation, till he was decapitated, and his body was thrown from the roof top, to become accordingly the first Hashimi martyr in the rise of Al Hussain. Afterwards, came the turn of Hani Bin Ourwa, whose body was also thrown from the roof top. Then, the officers of Ibn Ziad dragged along on the ground of the market the two noble bodies. Afterwards, Ibn Ziad ordered to crucify them upside down, and resolved to send both their heads to Yazeed Bin Mouwiyah.

Oubayd Allah got his revenge from all other revolutionaries. Each and every time he heard about a man, who used to be with Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him), he would capture him and cut his head. He also, threw plenty of freedom warriors in prisons.
Kufa after Muslim Bin Aqeel
Ibn Ziad sent his security report to Yazeed. He told him about Kufa’s situation and said: «Indeed! Thank is to Allah who granted rightfulness to the (Prince of Believers), and protected him from his enemy. I would like to inform the Caliph, May Allah honor him, that Muslim Ibn Aqeel went for shelter at Hani Bin Ourwa Al-Muradi’s residence, where I watched them and sent my spies after them. I planned conspiracies against both of them, till I got them out and Allah enabled me to terminate both of them. Thus I executed them and I do hereby send you both their heads».
Yazeed replied;  « I got informed that Al-Hussain Bin Ali is heading to Iraq, so set your spies and guards, be aware of any one you might suspect, and imprison for any accusation, but kill no one but he who fights against you. Do write to me about all occurrences and events».
When Oubayd Allah learned about Al Hussain’s Q coming from Mecca to Kufa, he dispatched Al-Hussayne Bin 


Chapter three: Kufa ’s Events

 Noumayr, the Police Chief, to set his base in Qadissiyah.  Ibn Ziad exaggerated in spreading terror and fear among the people of Kufa through plenty of terrorizing actions, to pave the way to mobilize them and orient them to fight against Imam Al-Hussain Q, because he knew that most of the people of Kufa despised fighting against him. So, he ordered to execute anyone who refrains from going to the battle. 






Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 Chapter Four:

 The Passage to Martyrdom 
Imam Hussain Q in his Way to Karbala
Imam Hussain’s Q convoy ran diligently, heading towards Iraq. Thus, during his way from Mecca till he reached Karbala, he passed by many locations and places, some of which he stayed in for a day and a night, and in other ones his stay was for one day, while he spent in other places few hours only, and some others were only stopping spots to perform prayer. Thus, during his journey many partisans joined him.
Imam Hussain Q met numerous people while travelling from Mecca to Karbala. Plenty are the situations through which he ascertained the significance of his rise against Yazeed Bin Muawiya, and the clear objectives for such move. 
It has been said that the Poet, Al Farazdak, whose name is Hammam Bin Ghalib Al-Tamimi Al-Hanthalli, had met Imam Hussain Q before his holy convoy leaves holy Mecca heading to the land of affliction; He greeted Imam Al- Hussain Q and asked him: 
«May Allah grant you what you ask and endow you the 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 goals you love. Indeed, you are more precious to me than my father and mother, you are the son of Allah’s Prophet, but why are you hasting to finish pilgrimage?»


Imam Hussain Q: «If I don’t hurry, I will be killed; do tell me about your people…»
Al-Farazdak answered: «People’s hearts are with you, but their swords are against you, destiny descends from above, and Allah does what he wills only.»
Imam Hussain Q Learns about the Death of Muslim (May Allah be pleased with him). 
The convoy reached «Al-Thaalabia» which equals the two thirds of the distance, where a man, being of Kufa people, stepped aside the road when he saw the Imam Q. Then Imam Q followed him as if he wanted him, but he left him and continued his way. Then, two men, belonging to Assad tribe, approached that man and greeted him. He was Baker Bin Al Muthaaba. They asked him: «Tell us about the people you left behind!»
He said: «I did not leave Kufa until Muslim Bin Aqeel and Hani Bin Ourwa were killed; I saw them being trailed by their legs on the ground of the market.»
Imam Hussain Q looked at them both and said: 
«Living is of no worth after them…, and he looked at Aqeel kinfolks and said: «What do you think, since Muslim has been killed.»
Aqeel’s kinfolks said: «By Allah, we will not go back; do you expect us to leave after the death of our beloved relative? No, by Allah, we will not go back until getting revenge or meet the same destiny as our friend!»


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 When it was midday, Imam Hussain Q lied down and fell asleep. Then He woke up and said: 


I saw a caller saying: «You are marching and decease is hasting to take you to heaven.» 
Imam Hussain’s Q elder son, Ali Al-Akbar asked him: «Father, aren’t we on the right path?»
He Q said: «Surely son, By Allah to whom servants shall go back.»
Ali Al-Akbar Q then said: «Father, therefore, by Allah we do not care for the death».
Imam Hussain Q said: «May Allah reward you my son, the best reward for a good son towards his father»
Hussain’s Q convoy went on till reaching «Zubala» which was a populous village, with markets between Waqissa and Thaalabia. There arrived the legate of Mohammad Bin Al-Ashaath to inform the Imam of Muslim’s Martyrdom and the desertion of the people of Kufa. Meanwhile, Muslim Bin Aqeel (May Allah be pleased with him) gave his will before getting murdered to Omar Bin Saad. His last recommendation was: «Do send to Hussain Q someone telling him to turn away, since I have sent him a letter stating that people are on his side and I don’t see him but coming». 
Omar Bin Saad told Ibn Ziad about Muslim’s will shortly after Muslim has confided on him.  Ibn Ziad told Omar: «A loyal person may not betray you, but people might trust a traitor».
Ibn Al Ashaath legate was Iyas Bin Al-Athal Al-Tai’I, a poet who was visiting Kufa. Ibn Al-Ashaath gave him a riding camel, in exchange of notifying Imam Hussain Q upon 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 the request of Ibn Aqeel (May Allah be pleased with him) , should he meet him while on his way. Iyas carried out his mission, and stayed four days in Zubalah, enjoying Imam Hussain Q hospitality. 


When Imam Hussain Q became certain of Muslim’s death, he gathered his companions and read to them the following letter:
«In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful, indeed, we have received horrible news that Muslim Bin Aqeel, Hani Bin Ourwa, and Abdullah Bin Boqtor were killed.  Our partisans had let us down, so, he who among you likes to leave, may do so and we will not prevent him in any way.
So people started to split, rapidly and heavily, away from him. Thus the remaining of the companions were those who came with him from Medina and holy Mecca. Yet, those who joined him on his way were nomads who thought that the Imam Q was heading to a country paved with obedience to him. Historical stories ascertain that avaricious and suspicious people had abandoned the Imam in Zubala.
The Imam Q wanted from his previous speeches to select the most devoted partisans, who were going to honor their religious obligation along his side. Indeed, this is the divine leaders’ rule, for their rise they aim to get devoted advocators, while they give no care to the quantity and relevant tools. The Imam Q went on testing and examining the determination of those who remained with him regarding the martyrdom, till the last moment. 
Al-Hurr Al Riyahi Army Crowding Imam Hussain’s Q convoy.
The convoy reached «Zu Al-Hasm» area, which was a mountain between «Sheraf» and «Bayda» House. 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 At noon, one of the men shouted «Allahu Akbar!» (God is Great), Imam Hussain Q said: «Allahu Akbar! Why did you say that?»


He said: «I saw palm trees»…Someone replied:» We have never seen palm trees in such a place».
Then, Imam Hussain Q asked about the matter and he was told: «It is the horses…»
Imam Hussain Q said: «And, by Allah, I am seeing that. Do we have a safe shelter to go to, in order to protect our back and face the coming people from one side?»
He was told to go up to «Zu Al Hasm» Mountain. The convoy headed then to the mountain; but the horses soon followed them. They were one thousand knights who came with Al-Hurr Bin Yazeed Al-Tamimi Al-Riyahi, and continued till they reached the top and stood along with their leader, facing the Imam Hussain Q under the hot noon burning sun, while the Imam Q was, as well as his companions, ready for them, fully armed and drawing swords. However, when the Imam Q saw them, he ordered his servants to give water to the people and their horses, and so they did.
Al-Hurr stayed with the Imam Q till noon prayer’s time. After calling to prayer, the Imam Q stood up, praised and eulogized Allah, and addressed the people saying:
«Fellow men, I beg Allah the Almighty’s Forgiveness and ask for yours. I didn’t come to you but upon your inviting letters and many messengers asking me to come to you, stating that you don’t have an Imam, asking Allah to guide our congregation towards the true religion and belief. If you were still aiming so, here I am, and if you gave me, what reassures 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 me, such as your promises and pact agreements, I shall come to your country. However, if you don’t give me that and are not accepting my coming to you, I shall leave you and head back to the place that I came from!»


Then he Q stood to say prayers and asked Al-Hurr.
«Are you going to lead the prayers for your companions?»
Al-Hurr answered: «It’s rather you, who is going to lead the prayer for all of us, and we shall follow your lead!»
Thus, the Imam Q led their prayers. Afterwards, he came back to his companions, while Al-Hurr went back to his place. When the Imam Q performed his afternoon prayers, he ordered people to go, after addressing them with a second speech. 
«Indeed, fellow men, if you fear Allah then you would recognize that handing the right to its rightful owner shall better gratify Allah; Yet, we, the Prophet’s Family, are the more eligible to assume such reign than those pretentious people, who are claiming what does not belong to them, further to leading you by tyranny and hostility. But, if you refused us, did not recognize our right, and stated that your opinion is contradicting the content of your letters as well as the missions of your messengers, I shall go away and leave you alone».
Al-Hurr Bin Yazeed said: «By Allah, we don’t know what those letters, which you mentioned, are!» 
Hussain Q said: «Oqba Bin Simaan, do take out the two bags containing the letters that they sent to me»
Oqaba thus pulled out two bags full of letters and he put them in the hands of the present parties.


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 Al-Hurr said: «But, we are not amongst those who wrote to you, and we have been ordered that if we were to meet you, not to leave you until we take you to Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad.»


The Imam Q replied: «Death is closer to you than such thing».
Then, he said to his companions: «Do get up and prepare you saddles to leave.» They rode their horses and camels’ backs, and waited for the women to ride.  Then, the Imam Q asked his companions to leave. But Al-Hurr and his army hindered them, thus the Imam Q addressed to Al-Hurr: «May your mother be bereaved with your death! What do you want?»
Al-Hurr, replied: «By Allah- if any Arab man other than you had said that, while undergoing your condition, I wouldn’t have left him until his mother looses him, no matter whom he is. But, by Allah; I can’t say anything but the best about your honorable Mother!»
Then, the Imam Q said: «So, what do you want?»
Al-Hurr said: «By Allah, I want to accompany you to go to Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad!»
The Imam Q said: «Then, by Allah, I shall not follow you!»
Al-Hurr said: «Thus, by Allah, I shall not leave you!»
They repeated the same words reciprocally to each other, three consecutive times. When their discussion raised sharp, Al-Hurr said: «I did not get any orders to fight against you, but my orders are not to leave you until I take you to Kufa.»
If you don’t want to come with me, do take a path that doesn’t take you neither to Kufa nor back to Medina, in order 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 to be fair for both of us, until I send a letter to Ibn Ziad, while you write to Yazeed Ibn Muawiya, should you desire so, or if you want you can write to Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad. Until that time, May Allah give me his bless and spare of any orders that might want me to face you!» 


Imam Hussain Q Stating the Nation’s Religious Obligation:
Imam Hussain Q convoy set out, while Al-Hurr and his army adopted the parable side of the road. When the convoy reached a spot called: «Al-Bayda», Imam Hussain gave one of his most important speeches, addressing his companions and Al-Hurr’s army. It is the speech that included the vivid reasoning that all Muslims are to abide by a collateral religious obligation to rise and confront the unjust tyrant ruler, who did exceed Allah’s interdictions and allowed himself all Islam prohibitions. After having praised Allah and glorified Him, Imam Hussain Q said: 
«O people, the Messenger of Allah P said: He who amongst you witnesses the reign of a tyrant ruler, who allows himself to adopt the prohibitions that Allah imposes, violating the vows he gave to Allah, infringing the rules of Allah’s Prophet P, governing Allah’s servants with sins and hostility, while not altering such evil doing by a say or an act, he shall witness the same punishment of Allah as that tyrant. Yet, those people had attached themselves to the obedience of the devil, leaving away the compliance of the Merciful.  They publicized corruption, exceeded the divine limits, and restricted the benefit of the Nation’s money to themselves; they also legitimized Allah’s interdictions and forbade his decencies. While I, more than any other one, have the right to govern you, thus, I have received your invitation letters as well as your messengers to pledge allegiance to me underlining that you will neither let me down, nor betray me and abandon me. Yet, if you fulfill your pledging 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 allegiance, you will realize the right way.


Indeed, I’m Hussain Bin Ali and Fatima, the daughter of Allah’s Prophet P, my soul shall be among yours, my family is amongst your families, and you will face with me whatever I might face. But if you don’t do so and choose to dishonor your vows, while denying your allegiance to me, indeed, it won’t be a strange act from you, since you have already done this to my father, brother and cousin Muslim. Yet, he who believes you shall be beguiled, because you have already missed your chance and wasted your recompense. He who breaches a commitment shall be doing it towards himself only, and Allah shall satisfy me not to need you; and, Peace be upon you.»
Afterwards the convoy of Imam Hussain Q continued marching, while Al-Hurr’s army was accompanying it. Al-Hurr said to the Imam Q: «I do remind you to invoke Allah for your sake and soul; I swear that if you fight you shall be killed, and when so you will perish, as I see.» Imam Hussain Q replied: 
«Is it with death that you are intimidating me? Would your steps grow as big as killing me? I don’t know what to say to you! But, nevertheless I shall quote the brother of Al-Aws when addressing his cousin whom he met while heading to support Allah’s messenger P, as he said: «Where are you going, you will be killed, so he replied: 
I’ll pursue while death is not a shameful act for such a man,
If his intentions are good and he struggled as a true Muslim
Joining in with the good men
Leaving behind all sinners and criminals


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 I shall have no regrets, should I stay alive, nor to be blamed if I died


 It is humiliation enough to live under such oppression
When Al Hurr heard such words, he set away marching on a different side of the Imam Q  till arriving to «Atheeb Al-Hajanat», whereas a group coming from Kufa approached them and among them : Amro Bin Khaled Al-Assadi Al-Sidawi, and his servant Saad; Moujammah Bin Abdullah Al Aaethi and his son Aaeth; Junada Bin Al-Harath Assalmani and his servant Wadeh Al-Turki (the Turkish), and a servant of Nafeh Bin Hilal who joined Imam HussainQ convoy before they did, while dragging along Nafeh’s horse. When they met the Imam Q they recited some rhymes showing renunciation for their lives for his sake. The Imam Q then said:
«By Allah, I wish our destiny, as drawn by Allah, to be good, whether being killed or victorious.» 
At that moment, Al-Hurr went to them and said: «These people coming from Kufa were not amongst those who came with you and I shall either imprison them or send them back»
Thus, the Imam Q answered: «I shall prevent them from what I myself from, indeed, these are my partisans and supporters and you have promised not to hassle me, until you receive Ibn Ziad’s letter»
Al-Hurr replied: «Yes, but they did not come with you!»
Thus, the Imam Q confirmed and said to him: «They are my companions, and they enjoy the same rank of those who came with me, either you fulfill the agreement we had, or otherwise I shall start fighting you!»
So, Al-Hurr left them off.


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 Imam Hussain Q asked those who joined him about the situation of the people they left behind, Moujammah Bin Abdullah Al Aaethi answered: «Those being ranked as nobles are highly depending on bribes and desire’s satisfaction; their affection is enlisted and accordingly they give their advice. They are all united against you. As for the other people, their hearts lean towards you, but their swords shall be against you


Then the Imam Q asked them about his messenger, Qeiss Bin Meshar, so they told him that Ibn Ziad ordered him to curse both the Imam and his Father Q, but instead he praised him and his father, further to cursing Ibn Ziad and his father. Thus Ibn Ziad threw him from the castle’s heights.
The Imam murmured the noble verse: «There are those who demised, and there are those who are awaiting, but they surely didn’t change!»
At this point, we find the Imam Q, despite the numerous news that informed him that the people had let him down, is insisting on heading to Kufa, saying: «We have made a promise to those people and we cannot thus abandon them…»
He said that because he knew his partisans were waiting for him, and some of them were those thrown in prison or even killed by Ibn Ziad.
The affects of loving this worldly life and detesting death for the sake of Allah was outrageously revealed, upon the meeting between Imam Al Hussain Q and Oubayd Allah Bin Al-Hurr Al-Geafy, whom the Imam Q called upon to support him, but he answered: «By Allah, dear son of the Daughter of Allah’s Prophet , if you had  in Kufa any helpers fighting with you, I would have been your fiercest fighter against your enemy; but I have seen your people in Kufa hiding in their 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 homes, fearing Umayyad troops and their swards. So, I ask, by Allah, to grant me the same rank and I shall consulate you as much as I can. Take my mare, ready to fight, by Allah, I never pursued any one while riding it but made him meet his death, and I was never caught if any one tried to follow me while riding it. Do take my sword that I never hit with it anything but to be cut». 


Imam Hussain Q said:
«Ibn Al-Hurr, we didn’t come to you to seek your mare or sword, but we wanted you to support us. Should you abstain to fight with us, we are in no need for your money. I was never among those who select delusive people as supporters, because I have heard the Messenger of Allah P saying: «He, who heard the plea of my family and did not support them to obtain their right, shall see Allah throwing him in hell on his face».
On his way, the Imam Q was hastening, trying to set apart his companions. But Al-Hurr used to send them back while waiting to receive Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad’s letter which reached him when the convoy was in Ninawa. 
It said: «Greeting, be atrocious with Al-Hussain when you receive my letter and after my messenger arrives to you. Don’t let him go but to open areas, wherein there is neither a fortress nor water. I ordered my messenger to stay and not leave you, until I get to know that you executed my order, Peace» 
Thus Al-Hurr forced the convoy to settle in a place with no access to water. Zouheir Bin Al-Qaign asked the Imam Q to let them fight against Al-Hurr and his army, but the Imam refused to be the one who starts the war.
The Land of Karbala


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 When the convoy reached Karbala, the Imam’s horse abstained from moving, so the Imam came down and rode on another one, which it didn’t move either. Thus the Imam Q inquired about the land’s name, and he was told that it is named «Al-Ghaderia»


He Q said: «Does it have another name?
They answered him: «Ninewa»
He then asked: «Does it have a further name?»
They said: «Al-Furat shore»
He Q said:
«Doesn’t it have another name?
They then answered: «It’s called Karbala»
At that moment, the Imam Q had a deep sigh and said: «Do get down, this is the end of our trip, here our blood shall be shed ; Here, by Allah – Our (Women) will be besmirched; Here – by Allah – Our men shall be murdered, By Allah – Our children will be slaughtered. Here, by Allah – Our graves will be visited, this is the land, my Grandfather, Allah’s Prophet P, promised me, and his says may never be changed…»
Imam Hussain’s convoy arrived on the second day of the sacred Mouharram, year sixty one after Hijra, and most likely is was a Thursday. 
The tents of Hussain’s convoy were set up in the pure spot which vestiges remain till this day in Karbala. It was a spot far from water surrounded by chain of hills and knolls. The tent of the Imam and his direct family R was set up first, then came the tents of his tribe, surrounding it, afterwards the partisans’ tents were built. Then, the Umayyad army surrounded Imam 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 Hussain Q to an extent that when Ibn Saad shot the arrow marking the start of the battle, and accordingly his army archers shot their arrows, there was no one amongst the members of Imam Hussain camp left without being hit by at least an arrow.


The Camp of Ibn Saad
On Mouharram the third, Omar Bin Saad Bin Abi Waqqas arrived, coming from Kufa, heading four thousand knights. He settled in Ninawa, wherein he was joined by Al-Hurr Bin Yazeed Al-Riyahi, with one thousand knights, and thus they became five thousand knights.
Omar Bin Saad sent Ouzra Bin Qeiss Al-Ahmasi to Imam Hussain Q to ask him what he wanted. But Ouzra was shy to go to the Imam, since he was among those who wrote and invited the Imam. Ibn Saad offered this mission to all the chiefs who wrote to the Imam, but all of them refused and hated to do so. This is when Katheer Bin Abdullah Ashaabi offered to go to meet the Imam and even kill him, if Ibn Saad wanted.
Omar Bin Saad decided to send to Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad, a letter that demonstrates the prevailing situation. According to Al-Tabari narration, the text of the letter contained: 
«In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful,
Indeed, as soon as I reached Hussain, I forwarded to him my messenger and asked him, what is the reason of his incoming, and what is it that he wants and seeks? He said: «The people of this country wrote to me; their messengers arrived and came to me asking me come to their land and I did. If they now hate my arrival and staying among them, while it appears to them 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 that the object for which their messengers came to me is no longer valid, I shall leave them» .When Ibn Ziad received Omar’s letter, he said:


Now, after we have our claws in his body              
He calls salvation, but in vain
He wrote to Ibn Saad and said: 
«In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful,
Indeed, I have received your letter and understood it. Do propose to Hussain pledging allegiance in favor of Yazeed Bin Muawiya, and such process shall apply to him and to all his companions. If he does that, we will see what we should do then. Peace» 
In no time, Ibn Saad sent his messenger to the Imam Q to obtain his allegiance pledging, but the Imam Q answered:
«I shall never give in to Ibn Ziad. If this will result in my death, so I shall welcome death!»
When Ibn Ziad learned about the Imam Hussain’s reply, he gathered the people in Kufa’s Mosque. There he told them that Yazeed Bin Muawiya has sent him four thousands dinars and two hundred thousand dirham to be distributed and given to them, shall they join in the fight against Imam Hussain Q. Ibn Ziad kept on sending soldiers, until they became thirty thousand, between knights and infantries. He left angry, accompanied by all his companions heading to Al-Nakhila, which is a spot near Kufa.
All troops gathered and headed to meet Omar Bin Saad, while six days of Mouharram months had elapsed.


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 Omar Bin Saad

Oybayd Allah Bin Ziad entrusted Al-Ray ruling to Omar Bin Saad, provided he first kills Imam Hussain Q. Omar fell into the ditch of hesitation and uncertainty. He started consulting his advisers who one by one advised him not do that. But, Oubayd Allah threatened to deprive him of Al-Ray ruling. Thus Ibn Saad refused such advises and preferred to fight against Imam Hussain Q. Nevertheless, Ibn Saad didn’t witness Ibn Ziad fulfilling his promise, though he carried out his orders. Thus Ibn Saad left Ibn Ziad heading to his house and family, while murmuring all along the road: «No one came back with such results but me. I obeyed the wrong doer, Ibn Ziad, a tyrant and a son of a tyrant. I disobeyed the fair ruler and I cut off the noble kinship.» Afterwards, people deserted him; when he used to pass by them, the y used to turn away avoiding him. Whenever he went into the mosque, people used to get out of it. He who is ever to see him used to publicly curse him. Thus he retreated and stayed home, until he was killed.
The Last Message of Imam Hussain Q:
The last letter of Imam Hussain Q from Karbala, addressed to his brother, Mohammed Bin Al-Hanafia, was the shortest letter, yet it enclosed the most subtle content with the deepest meanings: 
«In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful» From Hussain Bin Ali and those having accepted him out of the Hashims:
Indeed, it is as if life had never occurred, and as if the Hereafter is the only fact, Peace»
Imam Hussain Q made his letter reflect the most elegant meaning of death: If the truth of this worldly life was that it 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 ends with death, and we must imperatively get separated there from, let the end be the best of the best, while the ending shall be the most honorable one. By this letter, Imam Hussain Q finished or completed his previous letter sent from Mecca to his brother, Mohammad Bin Al-Hanafiah, where he said:

«He, who follows me, shall become a Martyr»…
The First Speech of Imam Hussain Q to his Companions:
When Imam Hussain Q got ascertained that these troops were determined to kill him, he gathered his companions and addressed to them a speech. 
After having praised and glorified Allah, he said:
«You all see the affliction we are subject to; indeed, life changed and denied us, whilst its good doing ended running away. Do you not see that right isn’t applied, whilst wrong doing is not being prevented? Every true believer shall desire the meeting of Allah. Surely, I don’t see death but happiness, while living with tyrants isn’t but dissatisfaction».
Habib Bin Mouthaher (May Allah be pleased with him) and Bani Assad Tribe
Omar Bin Saad’s army continued laying siege against Imam Hussain Q until the sixth of Mouharram, when Habib Bin Mouthaher Al-Assadi came to Imam Hussain Q and asked for his permission to go to the his tribe to obtain their support. Imam Al-Hussain Q accepted and granted him his permission. Thus Habib Bin Mouthaher (May Allah be pleased with him) departed in the middle of the night and called his tribe. 
They corresponded to his call, and Habib came back with ninety men wanting to join the troops of Imam Hussain Q. But, one of the men went to Omar Bin Saad and betrayed them telling him what happened. As soon as the people arrived to 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 Al-Furat River’s bank, they were surprised by Ibn Saad’s Army facing them. The two groups put up a fight, and numerous were killed.


The battle went on, until the Assads tribe realized that they cannot defeat Ibn Saad’s Army. Thus they retreated and went back home, while Habib came back alone to Imam Hussain Q
Ibn Saad Denying Water and Depriving Imam Hussain’s Q Camp of it
On Mouharram the seventh, the horses of Ibn Saad’s army obstructed the way of Imam Hussain Q together with his companions, to access the water, thus thirst extremely squashed them.
When thirst started to seriously affect Imam Q and his companions, He Q sent after his brother Al Abbas Bin Ali Bin Abi Taleb Q, and he dispatched him accompanied by thirty knights and twenty infantries, while carrying twenty water bottles, to get water. When they got close to the water, in the middle of the night, they first sent Nafeh Bin Hilal Al Jamaly to see if their way was clear. But, Omar Bin Al-Hajjaj with his five hundred soldiers tried to prevent them. Nevertheless, they fought until the Imam’s Q troops could break the siege, they reached the water and filled the bottles. 
Al-Abbas Q along with his companions protected the troops until they were able to deliver water safely to Imam Hussain’s Q camp. 

Imam Hussain Q Dialogue with Omar Bin Saad
Imam Hussain Q sent a messenger to Omar Bin Saad saying: 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 «I want to have a talk with you, meet me tonight in the land between my camp and yours!»


Omar Bin Saad went out with twenty of his knights. Yet, Imam Hussain Q came also surrounded with the same number of knights. When they met, Imam Hussain Q ordered his companions to stay away and they obeyed him. Only his brother, Al-Abbass Q and his son Ali Al-Akbar Q stayed with him. Then Omar ordered his men to stay away, while keeping with him his son Hafs and his servant Laheq. 
Imam Hussain Q then said:
«Woe to you Ibn Saad! Don’t you fear Allah, to whom you’ll return, for fighting against me, while you know, whose son I am, from the kinship to Allah’s Prophet P? Leave those people and be by my side, I shall shorten distances for you to be near Allah the Almighty.»
Omar Bin Saad said: «Aba-Abdullah –In Arabic a man is called by the expression «Father of the Eldest son»)… I fear for my house to be destroyed.»
The Imam Q replied:
«I shall build it for you!»
But Ibn Saad said: «I’m afraid my village shall be occupied by force!»
And the Imam Q said:
«I shall give you a better one, out of what I own in Hejaz!»
Ibn Saad replied: «I have a family that I worry and fear about!»


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 The Imam Q told him: «I shall guarantee their safety».


Here, Omar didn’t say a single word any more, accordingly; the Imam Q left him behind, and then Ibn Saad went back to his camp.
There is no doubt that Omar Bin Saad, alike the majority of Ibn Ziad’s army, was fully aware and certain that Imam Hussain Q was the rightful ruler of the nation.  He further was, undoubtedly, aware of the great disgrace, and horrible fall he was going to sustain eternally, if he murdered Imam Hussain Q in such confrontation, wherein he became the hostile army commander in chief. But his filthy inner side made him the prisoner of an uncontrollable will to reign over «Al-Ray» and its abundances. This is the reason that made him seek after finding a gateway of such predicament, in order to be freed off committing the crime of killing Imam Hussain Q, while not losing his wish to rule «Al-Ray» land. 
Omar Bin Saad’s Deception:
After having met Imam Hussain Q, Ibn Saad addressed a letter to Ibn Ziad; and said:
Allah had extinguished the fire, unified the word, and gathered the nation together. Hussain promised me to either go back to the place he came from in the first place, or to take him into any city of the Muslim cities that we name, or Yazeed, the Caliph comes and put their hands together…»
Ibn Saad aimed through this false letter is to avoid the killing Imam Hussain Q in such a manner, whereas he wouldn’t lose «Al-Ray» Ruling. But Ibn Ziad, upon getting to know about the meeting between Imam Hussain Q with


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 Ibn Saad, relied upon Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jowshan and admitted his advise whereas to have a strict position when dealing with such issue. Ibn Ziad, thus, sent Shamer with a letter to Ibn Saad, wherein it says:

 I did not forward you to Hussain to neither defend him, have any conversation with him, nor to give him a hope to be safe and survive, or to plead for him before me. Look, if Hussain and his companions renounce their claim to ruling over and surrender, do send them to me alive and safe. But if they refuse to do so, you have to attack, kill and wipe them out; because they deserve that. If Hussain is killed let horses’ hooves trample his chest and his back as well.»
Thus, Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jawshan, brought Oubayd Allah’s letter and remitted it to Omar Bin Saad. The latter said after had read it: 
«What is it with you? Woes to you, May Allah keep you a way. How ugly is the thing you remitted to me. By Allah, I believe you are the one who prevented him from accepting the content of my letter.
You spoiled an issue we hoped it would be the remedy and bring Hussain about, not to make him surrender – By Allah Hussain has a pride soul between his shoulders…»
Granting Peace and Security to Abu Al Fadle Al-Abbas Q and his Direct Brothers:
Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jawshan granted Al Abbas Bin Ali Bin Ali Taleb Q and his brothers to his mother, being all the sons of Om Al Baneen>, peace and security. Ibn Ziad and the Umayyad aimed to separate them of the Master of Martyrs, 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 and Shamer attempted to do so. He headed towards their camps, and stood before Imam Hussain Q companions and said:


«Where are our nephews, the sons of our sister?»
Al-Abbass Q as well as his brothers, Jaafar, Abdullah, and Othman, sons of Ali Bin Abi Taleb Q went out to Shamer and said:
«What do you want?»
He said: «You are safe and secure.»
They replied:
«May Allah curse you as well as your safety! Do you grant us peace, while there is no peace for the son of Allah’s Prophet?»
The Ninth Day of Muharram:
On Muharram the ninth, Omar Bin Saad called: «O, Knights of Allah, ride on and be prepared for the good news!»
All of them rode their horses. Then Ibn Saad marched forward towards Imam Hussain Q camp, just after the afternoon prayer. At that moment, the Imam Q was sitting in front of his tent, while putting his sword on his side, and having a small nap. His sister Zeinab>, heard the shout, so she got close to her brother and said: 
«Brother, do you not hear the voices getting closer?»
The Imam Q lifted his head and said:
«I saw Allah’s Prophet P in my dream. He told me: «you will come to us»
He then asked his brother Al Abbas Q to meet them 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 while surrounded with some twenty knights, counting Zouheir Bin Al-Quayn and Habib Bin Mouthaher. Al Abbas Q did what he was told and addressed to the coming people: 

«What is it that you want?
They said: «The order of the Caliph arrived.  He wants us to propose that you either pledge obedience to his ruling, or else we shall fight you»
Al-Abbas Q said:
«Hold on till I go back to Abi Abdullah and offer him your proposal»
They stopped, and Al-Abbas Q went back to Imam Hussain Q to tell him, while his companions remained in their place.
Habib Bin Mouthaher went on debating the people, until Al-Abbas Q came running and said:
«Fellow men, Abu Abdullah asks you to go away this evening, enabling him to give such issue a thought, since this issue was not raised logically between him and you. In the morning, with Allah’s will, we shall meet, and we will either accept to fulfill the issue you are asking and offering, or refuse and reject it».
Omar Bin Saad said: «Shamer what do you see?»
Shamer, answered: «What do you see yourself? You are the Prince and have the last word!»
Omar: «I wished that I was not the prince»
Then he turned to the people and called out: «What do you see?


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 Amro Bin Al-Hajjaj Bin Salama Al-Zoubaydi answered: «Praised be Allah, by Allah if they were coming from Daylam (a non Muslim country), and they asked you this favor, you ought to grant it to them. Qeiss Bin Al-Ashaath said: «Give them what they are asking for, by my life, you will be fighting them as of tomorrow’s morning». 


Omar said: «by Allah, if I am to know they were to do so, I wouldn’t be lingering to wait until night»
Imam Hussain Q wanted throughout his request, to set them away from him for that night, in order to enable him to give his orders and will to his next of kin.
Thus Imam Hussain Q said to Al Abbas Q
«Go back to them, and see if you can get them to hinder their fight till tomorrow and set them away for tonight, perhaps we can pray to our God tonight, invoking Him and asking for His forgiveness. He knows that I love praying for him, as well as the recitation of his book and the many supplications and pleading for his forgiveness».
This was amongst the aggregate reasons, which he wanted for his revolution; because he didn’t want his tragedy to occur in the darkness of the night, but in broad daylight, so that the largest possible number of people may witness what was going to happen. Additionally to the military accounts, whereas to a small group encircled in a very definite narrow spot, there were also publicity and intimation prospects of this request. Thus, he was going to unveil before the nation and the whole world his precedence right and the unjust treatment he was undergoing, as well as about the cruelty of his enemies, who didn’t give respect to any ethical or religious commitment.
Therefore, daylight was an important success factor to 



Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 preserve the truth of Al-Taff tragedy as it is, with all of its details. 


The Events of the Night of Ashura:
Imam Hussain Q gathered his companions further to Omar Bin Saad return to his camp, it was evening when he spoke to them, saying:
«I do praise Allah, the Blessing the Almighty, to the utmost, I do thank him for the better and the worse, O Allah I am grateful to you for honoring us with the Prophecy, teaching us the «Noble Qur’an», and for the knowledge of your religion, as well bequeathing us faculties such as hearing, seeing and hearts further to not making us polytheist. 
Indeed, I have never heard nor seen companions more loyal or better than mine. There is no family purer and more caring than mine. May Allah reward you for your behavior with me with his best rewards. Indeed, I do believe that tomorrow is our destined day to face these enemies, thus, I grant you all permission, and you may all go free of any obligation towards me. Now that it is night time, you can ride secretly, then, each one of you should take the hand of a man of my family, do spread in the glooming long darkness of the night till you reach your people and cities and await Allah’s relieve comes. Those people are after me. Should they get me, they will stop searching for any other one…»
At this point, his brothers, sons, nephews, and the two sons of Abdullah Bin Jaafar intervened. Yet, the first one to talk was Abu Al-Fadle Al- Abbas Q:
«Why should we do so? Is it to stay alive after your death? We wish that we do not live to see this happening!»


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 Then, Imam Hussain Q addressed to Aqeel’s Family:


«It is enough for your family the loss of Muslim. You may go, I give you permission!»
They said: «And what would people say? They will say, we abandoned our leader and Master as well as our cousin who is the son of the best of our uncles, without even throwing on his defense one arrow, nor stabbing with a spear, or even strike with a sword, and we do not know what they did to him! No, By Allah, we never do that. Yet we shall sacrifice ourselves, wealth and families for your sake. We shall fight, side by side, with you, until facing the same destiny. May Allah render bitter the living or surviving after you.»
Afterwards, each and every one amongst the companions stood up, to express his indefinite loyalty and readiness to scarify his life, between the hands of the Imam Q. Here, we mention the attitudes of some of them: Muslim Bin Awsajah: «Would we let you down, while not providing Allah with the reason not to recover your due right? By Allah, I shall break my spear in their chests, strike them with my sword for as long as I can still hold it with my hand, I shall never abandon you; and even If I did not have a weapon to fight them with, I shall throw them with stones in your defense, until I die by your side».
Saeid Bin Abdullah Al-Hanafi: «By Allah, we will not leave you, until the Almighty gets assured that we preserved the absence of his Prophet P by keeping on your side. By Allah, if I am to know that I would be killed, relived again, to be then burned alive and be thrown off, seventy consecutive times, I shall not leave you until I die while defending you».
Zuheir Bin Al-Quayn: «By Allah, I wish I could be killed and resurrected until being killed for a thousand times, while 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 Allah shall be sparing you and the souls of those guys amongst your family, through such killing.»


Mohammad Bin Bashir Al-Hudramy, who was told that his son was captured at Ray’s fortified borderlines, said: «May Allah reward me for him and myself, I don’t like to survive after his captivity!»
Imam Hussain Q heard what he said, thus he addressed to him:
«May Allah’s mercy be upon you. You are released of your allegiance to me. Go and seek to set your son free!»
The man answered: «May beasts eat me alive if I leave you.»
Likewise, each one of them went on stating his readiness to scarify his heart and soul for the sake of the Imam Q. He thus wished them all well and said: «Lift up your heads, and do look at your places in Heaven!»
Burayr Al-Hamadani and Omar Bin Saad
Burayr Bin Khudair Al-Hamadani, who was an ascetic man used to fast all day long and pray all night long, he asked for the Imam’s Q permission to go and have a talk with Omar Bin Saad in order to advise him, perhaps Omar would be sermonized and would restrain from fighting the Imam Q. So the Imam gave him the permission.
Burayr walked till he reached Bin Saad’s tent. He went in and sat down without any salutation. Thus Ibn Saad became angry and said: «Brother of Hamadan, what stopped you from greeting me? Am I not a Muslim, who knows Allah and his Prophet, while testifying for the truth?



Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 And all livings shall face the same as my destiny.


He Q repeated it for two or three times, until his sister, Noble Zeinab > understood what he was saying. She couldn’t control herself, she jumped on both her feet, trailing her dress behind her, till she reached him, and she > said:
«Alas, how bereaving am I. I wish that death annihilated my life; today my Mother Fatima, my Father Ali and Brother Al-Hassan had died, O the Successor of the bygones, and the essence of the survivals.»
The Imam Q looked at her, while his holy eyes glittered in tears, and he said:
«If pedgeons were left alone, they would have slept in peace.» This is a verse used to be said to show that a person is left with no choice.
She O said:
«Woe, how distressed I am.  Is your soul going to be taken away from you by force, this hurts my heart deeper and harder for me to absorb» 
Then she started slapping her face, tumbled and passed out…
Imam Hussain Q stood up, poured water on her face and told her:
«Oh! Dearest sister… be consoled by Allah’s Solace, and be aware that the People of the Earth do die, while Heaven people don’t survive for ever. Each and every thing is going to perish, except for Allah, who is the creator; He raises mankind and revives them, while being the only One. My Grandfather is better than me, my Father is better than me, my Mother 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 is better than me, and my brother is better than me, and, as any and each other Muslim, I have to follow the steps of the Messenger of Allah» 


He comforted her by such words, and further more addressed to her: 
«Dear sister, I am asking you to make an oath to me and do not break it, I don’t want you to tear any clothes, nor scratch your face, or curse to call bereave and distress against them, if I perish»
He, then, made her sit in his tent. Afterwards, he came out to his companions and asked them to keep their tents closer to each other, and to make tents rope interlaced. He also asked them to stand between houses so that they all face the attacking people from one side, while houses will be behind them, to the right, and the left of them.  Then, he Q returned to his place, where he spent the night praying, exhorting Allah, and invoking and imploring him. His companions also stayed up all night, praying, invoking and asking Allah’s forgiveness».
The Position of Nafeh Bin Hilal Al-Jamaly (May Allah be pleased with him):
In the middle of the night, Imam Hussain Q went out to inspect the burdens and hills. Nafeh Bin Hilal Al-Jamaly followed him. Imam Hussain Q asked him what pushed him to go out. Nafeh said: «Son of Allah’s Prophet, It worried me to see you get close to the camp sight of this tyrant».
Imam Hussain Q said:
«I went out to check the hills and knolls, fearing that it might be an ambush for horses’ attack on the day you and they set up your battle».
Afterwards, Imam Hussain Q came back holding Nafeh’s 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 hand, and said: «This is it! This is it, by Allah, the promise that shall be fulfilled away of any breach.»


He then turned to Nafeh:
«Don’t you want to hike between these two mountains in the dark night and rescue yourself?»
At that moment, Ibn Nafeh kneeled at the Imam’s feet, kissing them and saying: «May My mother bereave me. Indeed, my sword equals one thousand swords, and my horse is the same. By Allah, who blessed me with the grace of being with you, I will not leave you until my sword and my horse gets tired of my attacks and strikes».
Afterwards, Imam Hussain Q went into Zeinab’s O tent while Nafeh stood outside the tent waiting for the Imam Q, and he heard Zeinab O saying: 
«Did you find out the intentions of your companions? As I am afraid they might abandon you upon the first attack.»
He Q told her:
«By Allah, I have tested their courage and loyalty; and I found that they are heroic and gallant men, eager to die for me, the eagerness of a baby towards his mother’s milk.»
When Nafeh heard noble Zeinab’s O words, he cried and went to Habib Bin Mouthaher and told him what happened. Habib then said: 
«By Allah! If I wasn’t waiting for his order, I would have rushed with my sword to their attack, tonight» 
Afterwards, Habib called all the companions and friends, who all gathered near the tents of the Ladies of the Prophet’s family, so that their hearts feel tranquil and assured of the


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 men’s loyalty.


Imam Hussain Q and his companions spent their very last night, humming as if they were a beehive. They were all either kneeling or prostrating, standing or sitting while praying to Allah in an indefinite worship night.
The Partisans (Ansar) of Imam Hussain Q:
Partisans and supporters of Imam Hussain Q are of two sections. There are those partisans in general and those being partisans especially on the Day of Ashura (the tenth day of Muharram). There are also the martyrs of the rise of Al Hussain as well as the Martyrs of AlTaff (The battle day). There were partisans who struggled and waged a holy war, while remaining with the Imam on the day of Altaff but didn’t die at that time, alike Al-Hasan Al-Muthna, and those who died martyrs for the sake of the Imam Q while not participating in Ashura day (because they were already dead) alike Muslim Bin Aqeel, Hani Bin Ourwa, Maytham Al-Tamar, Qayeiss Bin Bouqtor and others.
Nevertheless, the number of supporters of the Imam Hussain Q, who participated with him in witnessing the battle of AlTaff, reached seventy two men only, counting the following:
- Seventeen were of the Hashim’s family, between men and young fellows.
- Among the Imam Hussain’s Q pure companions, there were seventeen who accompanied Allah’s Prophet P, who narrated speeches of the Prophet or at least witnessed his era.
- Twenty men were among the companions of the Master of Believers, Imam Ali Q.


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 -The followers or servants, who died as martyrs between the hands of Al-Imam Q were sixteen men.


It was reported that up till the tenth night of Muharram, the number of those who left Ibn Saad’s camp to join Imam Hussain Q were thirty two men.
Narrations do confirm that the number of Kufa people amongst Imam Hussain’s Q army were sixty eight including their servants.
Basra men counted only nine supporters to Imam Hussain Q, together with their servants. 
Some of the Titles of the Hussain’s Army
There are numerous titles, by which the army of Imam Hussain Q was called, in Karbala. Yet, we mention some: 
- The worshipers of the country, since they were known for their worshiping within the country, i.e. Kufa.
- The Insightful people.
- The Knights of the country.
- The Good Hearted People (Outgoing)
- Those who mention Allah a lot.
- The worshipers of the night.
Ibn Saad’s Army Constituents
We may classify the Umayyad army that confronted Imam Hussain Q in Karbala, whereas to the type of constituents as follows:
- The imposters, wanting to be near Imam Hussain Q to 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 kill him. 


Those are the people of desires and greediness, counting the opportunists who seek their worldly interests regardless of what changes these desires or interests might impose on them, alike Omar Bin Saad, Shebth Bin Rebei, Hajjar Bin Abjar, and Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jawshan etc…
- The mercenaries, being those willing to serve who ever pays more.
- The debauchees and perverts; whom only concern for their worldly life is to fulfill their bad desires of the many sins they are used to. Those do admit being people of voidance and corruption, searching for opportunities to obtain and realize abundant financial profits, alike the pervert who said: «Do fill my bags with gold and silver etc…»
- The coerced people, counting the apostates (Al-Khawarej) who were the enemies of the progeny of the Prophet, but they weren’t loyal to Muawiya and to the Umayyad either.
- Those tend to love Imam Hussain Q and obey him, but in different levels, counting those who were not able to join Imam Hussain Q due to the blockade, thus they joined Ibn Saad’s Army and awaited the pertinent opportunity in Karbala Land to join the Imam Q camp, as well as those who grabbed opportunities to run away
About the Umayyad Army Titles
The Umayyad Army was described by both Imam Hussain Q and his companions with numerous titles that expose their reality. Some of it: 
- The Partisans of Abi Soufian.


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 - The Insolents

- Those who regained infidelity after faith 
- The Nation’s slaves
- The Parties’ exclusions
- Those whom Allah Sealed their Hearts
Prominent leaders of the Umayyad Army
The military main leaders of Ibn Ziad’s Army were: 
- Omar Bin Saad Bin Abi Waqas, who was the General Field leader.
- Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jawshan, who follows Ibn Saad whereas to his importance and rank. He was heading four thousand soldiers. He was the left arm commander.
- Shibth Bin Rabhi: The leader of infantry with one thousand knights.
- Al-Hurr Bin Yazeed Al-Riyahi, having at his command one thousand fighter to besiege Hussain’s convoy. However, he joined the camp of Imam Hussain and died as a martyr between his hands, on Ashura Day.
- Hussayne Bin Numayr: Heading four thousand of the army’s mobilized men. He was the commander for controlling the Iraq, Hijaz borders, earlier to Al-Taff battle. 
- Amro Bin Al-Hajjaj, the commander in chief of the army right arm, being in charge of depriving water from Imam Hussain Q
- Mohammad Bin Al-Ashaath: The chief of the Kinda tribe in Kufa. 


Chapter Four: The Passage to Martyrdom

 Burayr said to him: «Should you have known Allah and his Prophet, as you say, you wouldn’t have risen against the progeny of the Messenger of Allah P wanting to fight them. Indeed, this is the Furat River, flourishing his clarity and swinging as snakes’ bodies, offering his water to the commons’ dogs and pigs, whilst Hussain Bin Ali, his brothers, women, family members, and kinsfolk are killed by thirst, since you interdict them to have access to water of Al-Furat to drink from it, and you dare pretending knowing Allah and his Prophet P?»


Omar Bin Saad bowed his head for a moment, to lift it afterwards and say: «By Allah, O Burayr, I’m fully aware that he who fights against them and violates their right shall, undoubtedly, sink in the hell’s fire; but Burayr, do you advise me to let go of Al-Ray ruling, so that it goes to someone else? By Allah, I don’t find myself satisfied with such choice!»
Burayr came back to Imam Hussain Q and said: «O Son of Allah’s Prophet P, Omar Bin Saad accepted to kill you in exchange to Al-Ray rule.»
Imam Al Hussain Q With the Honorable Zeinab >
Imam Hussain Q gave orders to excavate and build a ditch around his camp, and instructed to fill it with timber wood. Then He Q stayed in his tent with John, the servant of Abi Thar Al-Ghefari. John was mending Imam Hussain’s Q sword and fixing it, while Imam Hussain Q was saying:
O eon! What a displeasing friend you are 
How many you have in the rises and sets 
Whether friends or benefit seekers, all are dead
While time does not accept a substitute
Indeed the decision is for the Almighty 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 Chapter Five:

The Day of Ashura
In the early morning of Ashura Day, Imam Hussain Q lead his companions for the morning prayers amongst his friends and companions. Then, He addressed them with a speech, starting by thanking and praising Allah and then said: 
«Allah, the Almighty, gave the authorization for the killing of you and me in this day. So, be patient and fight.»
Afterwards he arranged their marshaling, and according to the narrations, they were thirty two knights and forty walking men (infantry).
He entrusted Zuhair Bin AlQayn on the right side leadership and the left side to Habib Bin Mouthaher, while he Q stood in the middle.
He gave his glorious, great flag to his brother Al-Abbas Q. They all gave their backs to the tents. Imam Hussain Q ordered to set fire in the ditch they had dug, to hinder the enemy of coming from their back.
Omar Bin Saad mobilized his troops, who according to some versions counted thirty thousand men. He assigned Amro Bin Al-Hajjaj for leading the right side and Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jawshan for the left, while the cavalry leader was Ouzra Bin


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 Qeiss and the infantry was lead by Shebth Bin Ribei, and he gave his flag to Thuwaida, his servant. 


When Imam Hussain Q saw their huge number as if they were a flowing flood, he lifted his arms with supplications while saying:
«O Allah! You are my trust in every affliction, my hope in every distress; You are my recourse in any happening and my support. Many are the burdens that weakens the believing hearts, where there is little that we can do, where friends let us down, and enemies rejoice at our misfortune; I brought it all before You, and lodged complaint to You, seeking help from You aside from anyone else, and You did help me and relieved me of any distress, You are the source of each and every grace, the owner of each and every good doing and the last destination of all my wishes».
People came walking around Imam Hussain’s Q camp, looking at the blazing fire in the ditch. Thus Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jawshan shouted: «Hussain, you hastened with fire on Earth, anticipating the resurrection day.»
Hussain Q lifted his holy head, and said: 
«Who is that? Is it Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jawshan?»
They answered: Yes
He Q said:
«…You better deserve to endure its flames»
Muslim Bin Awsaja addressed to the Imam Q and said: 
«Son of Allah’s Prophet, may I be sacrificed for your sake, would you let me throw him with an arrow?» 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 He, Q said:


«Don’t shoot him; I hate to be the one who starts the battle.»
Then, a man of Tamim tribe, named Abdullah Bin Hawza came close until facing Imam Hussain Q and said to him «Hussain, be given the good news of going to hell fire!»
Imam Hussain Q said: «Indeed I’m going to a Merciful God and an Obeyed Patron.»
Afterwards, he asked «who is that? 
They answered; «Ibn Hawza»
He Q said: 
«May Allah burn him in Hell!»
Just then, Ibn Hawza’s mare got frightened while crossing a stream, his foot got stuck to the stirrup, and he fell while his head hit the ground, the mare started running towards the fire, and Allah hastened his soul to hell’s fire!
Imam Hussain Q First Speech (During that Day):
Then Imam Hussain Q called for his mare. He rode on its back and went forward towards the people. He said, with his loudest voice to be heard by all of them:
«People, Do hear what I have to say, and don’t hasten until I give you the advice that is your right on me, so that I shall be excused of my duties towards you. So, If you granted me just, you shall be happier with that, but If you didn’t give me the just of your hearts, do aggregate your opinion, then no grief shall afflict you, and pass me your judgment without hesitation. Indeed, My Protector is Allah, who revealed the holy book, 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 and who takes care of good believers.»


Afterwards, He thanked and eulogized Allah, reiterated what He is capable of, praised the Prophet, his family, the Angels and all other prophets, R.
Imam Hussain Q said: 
«O People, do relate and trace back my parentage, and see who am I? Afterwards go back to your inner hearts and blame them, then think: Do you have the right to kill me and profane my sanctity?! Am I not the son of your Prophet’s daughter, the son of the one he entrusted with his will and his cousin and the first of the believers who accepted his prophecy that was revealed to him from Allah? Isn’t Hamza, the Master of Martyrs, my uncle? Isn’t Jaafar, who is flying in heaven with two wings, my uncle? Aren’t you aware of the Prophet’s saying, regarding my brother and me: «These are the two Masters of the Youth in Heaven»?
If you believe what I say, which is the truth, and By Allah, I have never intentionally lied, since the day I learned that Allah hates lying people, but if you accuse me of lying, you may find amongst you persons, whom if you asked shall tell you about it. Ask Jaber Bin Abdullah Al-Ansari, Abou Said Al-Khudary, Sahl Bin Saad Al-Saedi, Zeid Bin Arqam, and Anas Bin Malik they will all tell you that they have heard this saying from Allah’s Prophet  P whereas to my brother and me. Doesn’t that hinder you of shedding my blood?»
Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jawshan, said: I already worship on the edge, (meaning in doubt) and I do not get what are you trying to say»
Habib Bin Mouthaher said to him «By Allah, I do see you worship Allah in seventy different edges (ways)! I do testify 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 that you are saying the truth and you do not know what the Imam is saying, because Allah has sealed your heart!»


Then Imam Hussain Q addressed to them and said:
«If you have doubts about this saying, do you doubt that I’m the son of your Prophet’s daughter? By Allah, there isn’t, between the east and the west, a son of a daughter’s Prophet other than me, living amongst you and not among any other people. Shame on you! Do you ask for my Head, due to me killing one of your people, or for me stealing some of your money, or as a punishment for an offense towards any of you?!»
Here they stopped talking to the Imam Q but he called:
«O, Shibth Bin Ribhi, Hajjar Bin Abjar, Qeiss Bin Al-Ashaath, and Yazeed Bin Al-Harith, haven’t you written to me, that fruits are ripe, and greenish is everywhere so come heading soldiers who are awaiting your commands?»
Qeiss Bin Al-Ashaath answered him: «We don’t know what you are talking about! But do obey your cousin’s ruling, and they will not show you but the things you like!»
Imam Hussain Q told him:
«You are just like your brother; do you want the Hashims to seek revenge of you for more than Muslim Bin Aqeel’s blood? No, By Allah, I shall never surrender to them like a stooge, neither shall I approve of their doings like the slaves. O Slaves of Allah, I seek the refuge of my God and yours from your stones. I seek Allah’s refuge away from any arrogant, who doesn’t believe in the resurrection day».
Afterwards, he made his horse kneel and ordered Uqba Bin Samaan to tie it, and his enemies started crawling towards him Q 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 The Speech of Zohair Bin Al-Qayn’s (May Allah be pleased with him):


It is told that Zuhair Bin Al-Qayn rode of a mare with a hairy tail fully armed and said: 
«O People of Kufa, Be aware of Allah’s punishment with fire, A Muslim is obliged to provide advice to his Muslim brother. Till now we are still brothers, followers of the same religion as long as we are not parted by the effect of the swords, you do deserve our admonition. But if the battle starts, virtue will cease, while we become a Nation different than yours.
Allah is testing us as well as you with the presence of his Prophet Mohammad’s P pedigree, to see what both of us are going to do. We do call upon you to support them and to abandon the tyrant Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad, of whom you’ll only witness the bad era of the period of his reign. He will tear out your eyes, cut off your hands and feet. He will distort your bodies, lifting you on palm trees trunks, killing your peers and partisans like Hujor Bin Ouday and his companions, Hani Bin Ourwa and his peers».
They cursed him and paid tribute to Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad wishing him well and said: «By Allah, we will not stop or leave until we kill your friend and those supporting him, or else we shall send him together with his companions to Prince Oubayd Allah while in surrender» 
Zouheir then replied:
«O Worshipers of Allah, indeed, the son of Fatima (May Allah’s Peace be upon her) has more worthy of your support than the son of Soummaya. If you don’t wish to support them, I shall ask Allah to protect you from the sin of killing them. Leave this issue to be solved between this man and his cousin, Yazeed Bin Muawiya; By my life Yazeed would be satisfied with 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 your obedience without having to kill Hussain Q.»


It was said that Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jawshan shot him with an arrow and said: «Shut up! May Allah muzzle your groaning. You tired us with your ongoing speech.»
Zouhair told him:
«I’m not talking to you, because you aren’t but a brute animal, by Allah, I am certain that you may not know as little as two verses out of Allah’s Holy Qur’an, and I do give you the good news of being dishonored, afflicted by a painful torment on the day of Resurrection.» 
Shamer told him: «Allah shall kill you and your friend, within an hour.»
He then said: 
«Is it death that you are threatening me with? By Allah, dying for his sake is more plausible for me, than living eternally with you».
Afterwards, Zouhair came close to the people and spoke loudly while saying:
«O Allah’s worshipers, don’t be seduced away of your religion by this harsh uncivil blunt person and his peers; by Allah, you will not get any intercession of Mohammad P being the villain people who had shed the blood of his pedigree and progeny, and murdered those who supported them and protected the sanctity of their women».
Then a man called him saying: «Abu Abdullah Q tells you:
«Do come, as by my life, you are similar to that believer of Pharaoh’s family, who gave advice to his people and made 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 eloquent invocation. You have already given advice to those people and informed them, if advice and intimation were to be of any use.»


The Speech of Burayr Bin Khudayr (May Allah be pleased with him):
It is reported that Imam Hussain Q said to Burayr Bin Khudayr, Al-Hamadani: 
«Do address those people, O Burayr and do give them advice.»
Burayr walked forward and stood at a close distance from the people, who were all marching towards him. Burayr addressed them and said:
«O you people, do fear Allah, indeed the inheritance of Mohammad is in between you, those are his pedigree sons, descendants, girls and women! Tell us what do you have for them? And what do you want to do with them?»
They answered: «We want to hand them over to Prince Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad and he will see what to do with them».
Burayr said: «Won’t you be satisfied by seeing them go back to the place they came from? Woe to you people of Kufa! Have you forgotten the letters you sent him and the vows that you made on your own, while considering Allah as the witness thereon, and Allah is the adequate Witness?!
Woe to you, you called the family of your Prophet and claimed your readiness to be killed for their sake, and when they did come, you handed them to Oubayd Allah! Notwithstanding that you dared interdicting them to have access to the flowing water of Al-Furat River! What a bad way to treat the family of Mohammad?! What is wrong with you?! May Allah prevent 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 you of any drinking on the Resurrection day? You aren’t but the worst people!»


A man replied: «Hey you, we don’t understand what you are saying!»
Burayr said: «I thank Allah for making me more perceptive than you, O Allah! I declare innocence of those people’s acts! O Allah, May you let them fight each other till they meet you while you are still angry at them!»
The people started shooting arrows at him, thus Burayr stepped back.
The Second Speech of Imam Hussain Q 
Imam Hussain Q came forward and saw their troops as if they were a waving flood, thus he addressed them saying: 
«I do thank Allah for creating this life as a place for extinction and vanishing, disposing of its population destiny, thus, an arrogant is he who believes in its continuation, and the unfortunate he who is seduced by it, so don’t be taken by worldly life and don’t let vanity deceit you about Allah».
Here is another part of His Q speech:
«Indeed, the best God is our Allah whilst you are the worst worshipers. You acknowledged obedience and believed in Allah’s Prophet, Mohammad P, but yet, you declared enmity against his pedigree and descendants, wanting to murder them. The Devil dominates you, and he has made you forget the glorifying of the Great Allah, so fie on you and your aim, to God we belong and to him we shall return, these people became disbelievers after had believed, so may the afflicted people be defeated. 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

Woe to you, O people, and may you be in distress, you have called for our help, while being overwhelmed by sorrow, and we swiftly corresponded to your demand; and what was your reaction? You drew a sword against us while you claimed it is our swords to be counted on, you put up against us the fire that we had set against both your and our enemy, so you became united with your enemy against your rightful rulers, in an unfair manner, which they spread among you, and yet without any hope of them for you. So, would you – May you be distressed – accept to let us go while our sword are still undrawn, and the hearts still hiding their wills; Yet , the hast word became of the strongest, letting down the rightful. Instead, you hurried to our fight like fruit flies, and gathered yourselves to it as butterflies do to the light, so be cursed, you are nothing but the slaves of this nation and parties’ exclusions, you are the rejecters of the Holy Book, the distorters of the Prophet’s speech, a horde of sinners, and a devil’s soul; You are the extinguishers of the rulings of the Prophet P. Do you support these people and let us down? Yes indeed-by Allah- Perfidy is an ancient quality of you; yet your roots are mixed with it, while your branches were nurtured by it, thus you became the worst fruits, being the cause of sorrow for he who looks at you, and only eaten by thieves. Nevertheless, the false claimer of lineage offered only two choices, he either wants sword to be drawn or our shameful submission, but it is impossible for us to select humiliation! Allah disapproves that for us, so does his Prophet and the believers, as well as the pure hearted people, proud souls and courageous men, all do interdict us to obey mean people, upon getting the death of Nobles. Nevertheless, I shall march with this family, though we are not numerous, and only have few supporters. 
Defeat doesn’t count with previous long victories 
And Loss does not mean we are defeated.


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 Cowardness is not of our habits

Other will reign by our abolition. 
If death spares some, it will grab others
It got the elite of my family as it did to the preceding nations.
If kings were eternal, we should be so
And, if nobles are to stay, then so would us
Tell those rejoicing at us today, wake up
You shall meet the same destination.
Then, indeed, you will not stay after this but as long as a horse ride, and then hardness and concern will devour you. This is what I was told by my father and grandfather; do make your mind, gather your accomplices, and don’t let such decision bring sadness upon you, then do pass your judgment to me without hesitation. I am depending on Allah, My God and yours, He controls every walking creature. Indeed, My God’s way is the straight path.
O Allah, Do not let rain come to them, let them live years such as those of Yusuf, and let a man from Thaqeef ( a tribe in Kufa) deal with them, who will make their lives like drinking from a bitter cup, as they had lied to us and abandoned us. Indeed, You are our God, upon you we depend, to you we come for help, and to you is our final destination.»
Afterwards, the Imam Q stepped down and called to be given the mare of Allah’s Prophet Q (Al–Murtajas). He rode on its back and mobilized his companions for the fight. He called Omar Bin Saad, even though hating to see him, and when he arrived, the Imam Q addressed to him: 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 «Eh! Omar, do you claim that by killing me you will be rewarded by the false claimer of lineage, with the Reign of «Al-Ray» and «Girjan» regions? By Allah, you shall never enjoy that, this is a promise, do what do you want to do, you will never feel happy after my death, neither in this life nor in the hereafter; It is as if I saw your head lifted on a cane in Kufa, while boys shall play with it as a ball, and deem it a toy.»


Ibn Saad was very angry with his words, so he turned away, called his companions and said: «What are you waiting for? Do attack as a whole, because it’s only one bite!»
The Position of Al-Hurr Al-Riahi:
Al Hurr Bin Yazeed Al-Riahi went to Omar Bin Saad, and asked him:
«Do you really want to fight this man?»
He said: «Yes, By Allah, through a fight where heads shall fall down and hands shall fly up!»
Al-Hurr said: «Aren’t you satisfied with even one of the virtues he exposed to you?»
Omar Bin Saad said: «By Allah, if I were to decide I should have accepted! But your ruler is the one who is refusing»
Thus Al-Hurr came forward until being in the middle of the crowd, followed by a man of his people, called Qurrah Bin Qeiss; Al-Hurr said:
«Qurrah, did you give water to your mare today?»
Qurrah said: «No»
Al-Hurr said: «Don’t you want to give it water?»


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 Qurrah said: «I thought – by Allah- that He wanted to retreat, and not witness the fight, while hating me to see him when doing so!»


I told him: «I did not give it any water; I am going now to do so.»
He said: «I stepped away from where he was standing; he then started getting closer, little by little to the camp of Al-Hussain Q.»
A man of his people, Al-Mouhajer Bin Aws told him: «Ibn Yazeed what do you want? Do you want to attack?» 
Al-Hurr kept silent while overwhelmed by a chill.
His friend said to him: «Ibn Yazeed, by Allah, your doing is strange. By Allah, I have never seen you in any situation behaving as you are doing now, and If I were asked, who are the most courageous men in Kufa, I would not have skipped your name, so, what is it that I am seeing of you now?»
Al Hurr-said: 
«Indeed, by Allah, I am giving myself the choice between Heaven and Hell, and by Allah, I shall never choose anything but Heaven, even though I might be cut into pieces and burnt in fire.»
Afterwards, he kicked his mare and joined Imam Al-Hussain Q. When he stood between his arms, he said:
«May Allah make me die for your sake, O son of Allah’s Prophet, I’m your friend who hindered you from going back, accompanied you on the road, and forced you to come to this place. By Allah, who there is no God but Him, I didn’t think those people shall ever deny what you proposed to them, and 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 never reach such decision against you. Thus I have told myself: I do not mind obeying them in some of their orders, while they shall not see that I’m disobedient to them, and they will surely accept from Hussain Q the virtues he is proposing. By Allah, if I thought for a moment that they wouldn’t accept them being proposed by you, I would never have accepted their hostility. Now, I came to you with repents to my God, asking you to forgive my previous acts, and to console you by my soul, till I die while on your side, would you accept my repentance accordingly?


Imam Al-Hussain Q said: 
«Yes, Allah shall forgive and pardon you.
What is your name?» 
He said: «I’m Al-Hurr Bin Yazeed»
He Q said:
«You are Al-Hurr (The free man) as your mother had named you. You are, By Allah’s will, Al-Hurr (the free man) in this life and hereafter, do get down»
Al-Hurr said: «I can benefit you best by riding rather than waling, I shall fight them for a while, and at the end, I shall be down».
Imam Al-Hussain Q said: «Do what you see fit- May Allah’s Mercy be upon you.»
He went back, stood before his previous allies and said:
 «People, don’t you accept from Hussain Q one of the virtues he offered to you, so that Allah spares you the fighting against him?»


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 They Answered: «This is Prince Omar Bin Saad, talk to him.»


He addressed to him the same words he had already said to him and to his allies. But Omar replied: 
«I tried my best to do that, and I if had found a way to do so, I would have surely grasped it»
Al-Hurr said:
«O People of Kufa! How stupid and inconsiderate you are! As you called him and when he came to you, you surrendered him. You claimed your readiness to be killed for his sake, and then you turned around to kill him. You withheld him and caused him grief after suppression, you encircled him from all parts and sides, preventing him to go towards Allah’s vast lands, in order to be safe and provide his family with safety. Yet, he became like a captive for you, being neither able to act usefully nor defend himself.  You deprived him, as well as his women, little boys and companions of the flowing water of Al-Furat (...) Here they are suffering from thirst. What an evil act have you committed towards Mohammad’s pedigree? May Allah deprive you of drinking a drop of water on the resurrection day, should you not repent and abandon what you are about to do in this day and this hour of yours!»
Men of the other camp attacked him, shooting arrows at him; he retreated until being next to Imam Al-Hussain Q.
The Beginning of the War:
Omar Bin Saad came forward and shot towards Imam Al-Hussain Q the first arrow, showing himself off and saying: Be witnesses, before the Caliph that I was the first to shoot at 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 the Imam. Afterwards, arrows of the evil side started to drop like rain.


Imam Al-Hussain Q addressed to his companions:
«Stand up May Allah’s Mercy be upon you- and face the unavoidable demise, these arrows are the messengers of those people to you!»
When the first wave of arrows ended, Yasar, the servant of Ziad Bin Abi Soufyan and his peer Salem, servant of Oubayd Allah Bin Ziad, came forward and said: «Who wants to fight? Let some of you face us!»
Habib Bin Mouthaher jumped up similarly as did Bourayr Bin Khudayr, but Imam Al-Hussain Q told them… «Be seated…»
Then Abdullah Bin Oumayr Al-Kalbi said:
«O Aba Abdullah! May Allah have Mercy on you; give me the permission to fight them»
Imam Al-Hussain allowed him to do so, thus, he fought them and killed them both.
Just then, Om Wahab, his wife, grasped a shaft and headed towards her husband, while saying:
«I love you more than my Mother and Father! Do fight for the good hearted people, Mohammad’s Pedigree»
He came back to her trying to make her go to the women’s tent, but she held his clothes while saying: 
«I will not leave you until I die with you»
Imam Al-Hussain Q called her: «The family of the 



Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 Prophet is grateful for your nobility, do come back – May Allah have mercy on you- and stay with the women, since women are relieved of the duty to fight.»


The First Raid
The first raid against the camp of Imam Al-Hussain Q started. Amro Bin Al-Hajjaj was to attack from the right side of Omar Bin Saad’s army that was on the side of Al-Furat River. Both armies fought and spent almost an hour fighting against each other.Ddust hasn’t calmed down until had revealed that Muslim Bin Awsaja Al Assadi was knocked down. 
Imam Al-Hussain Q went to him, whereas he found he was still breathing and told him:
«May Allah be Merciful with you, O Muslim … (Some of them have fulfilled their obligation (i.e. have martyred); and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed).»
Habib Bin Mouthaher got close to him and said:
«Your demise is painful to me Muslim, Be cheerful, as you are going to Heaven.»
Muslim spoke to him, weakly:
«May Allah grant you the good news!»
Habib said to him 
«If I didn’t know that I will join you in an hour following your steps, I would have loved for you to entrust me with all your concerns!»
Muslim told him: «I do entrust you with this person, and he pointed out to Imam Al-Hussain Q, do fight for him until you die for his sake!»


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 Habib told him: «Be assured, I shall fulfill your will!»


Afterwards, his pure soul passed away, May Allah Be Pleased with Him.
Just then, Shamer Bin Al-Jowshan, surrounded with his friends, attacked the tents of Imam Al-Hussain Q. So, Zouheir Bin Al Quayn (May Allah’s Mercy Be Upon Him) countered their attack, with only ten fighters amongst Imam Al-Hussain’s Q partisans, obliging them to stay away from the tents, while killing some of them and the rest ran away. 
Yazeed Bin Maqal came out of Ibn Saad’s army and said: «O Burayr Bin Khudayr, how do you evaluate what Allah had done to you?»
Bin Khudayr said:
«By Allah, Allah did me all good, while inflicted you with evil doing.»
He said: «You are lying, and before today you have never lied!»
Burayr told him: «Let Allah Curse the Liar among us and kill the perfidious, then come out and let’s fight!»
It is said: Thus they met face to face. They both lifted up their hands, invoking Allah to curse the liar and let the rightful man kill the one who established perfidy.  Afterwards, each one of them came to face the other, and they exchanged swords strikes. Yazeed Ibn Maqal hit Burayr Bin Khudayr, but he barely did harm him. When Burayr assigned his strike, it was strong enough to open Ibn Maaqal’s forehead, reaching his brain. The latter kneeled down as if he was falling from a height, while Ibn Khudayr’s sword was planted in his head. 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 Then, the people got back to Imam Al-Hussain Q, to see Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jawshan- May Allah Curse Him – attacking the left wing but they could resist and defeat him. Imam Al Hussain Q and his partisans were locked and encircled all around. Yet, the companions of Imam Al-Hussain Q were all insightful, quick, wise and steady, as nothing could impair their faith. They went fighting and killing each one who dared to confront them.


Amro Bin Alhajjaj said, and he was on the right wing: «Woe to you fools, wait a minute, do you know who you are fighting? Indeed, you are fighting against the knights of this country, the insightful people who are eager to die for the right cause; they shall kill any of you who might confront them, despite their little number. By Allah, you should be able to kill them if you threw them with nothing but stones.»
Ibn Saad said: «You are right. I shall decide according to your advice. Do order the soldiers not to fight man to man, because when rising individually they will surely defeat you all.» Thus, they started attacking as groups riding their horses, while Imam Al-Hussain’s Q companions were holding their grounds. They were only thirty two knights, who were able to push any attaching troop from any side. 
When Uzra Bin Qeiss, the commander of knights of Kufa, witnessed that his knights are being defeated, regardless of the wing they belonged to, he sent for Omar Bin Saad asking:
«Don’t you see what my knights are facing today from such a small number? Do send them your infantry and archers.» Thus he sent «Al-Mujaffafa» which was an armed force protecting themselves and their horses with shields – as well as five hundred archers. So they proceeded until they became close to Imam Al-Hussain Q and his companions, and started 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 shooting arrows at them and did not stop until they disabled their horses and they all became infantries. 


Mid – day Prayer
The fighting kept on going intensively till mid-day. Due to their few numbers, any one would easily notice when one or two men amongst the companions of Imam Al-Hussain were killed, where he would not notice the many killings of the army of Omar Bin Saad due to their big number. By this time more than forty amongst the partisans of Imam Al-Hussain Q were demised in the battle field.
Midday was coming closer. So, Abu Thoumama Al-Saedi said: 
«Abu Abdullah! My soul is to be sacrificed for your sake; I see those people are coming closer to you. No, By Allah! You shall not be killed until I die before you, if Allah Wills. Yet, I would like to face my God after having performed this prayer, which time is getting closer»
Imam Al-Hussain Q lifted his holy head and said:
«You remembered praying, May Allah count you among the prayers and the worshipers, yes indeed, this is the beginning of its time». 
Afterwards, Imam Al-Hussain Q said to his companions:
«Ask them to cease the fight, so we can perform our prayer»
They did ask them; but Al-Hussayne Bin Tameem said: «God will never accept your prayer.»
Habib Bin Mothaher answered him:


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 «You claimed that the prayer of the Family of the Prophet is not accepted while yours is, you alcoholic sinner.»[1]


Al-Hussayne then attacked, thus Habib Bin Mouthaher countered his attack, and hit his horse’s face with his sword, it jumped so he fell off it, and just then his friends hurried and saved him. 
Habib went on saying:
Your numbers and tools are more
Our faith and Patience are more
Our argument is deeper
Our right and belief are stronger
He eagerly fought until he was murdered as a martyr, and his death deeply affected Imam Hussain Q as he said: 
«At Allah’s service, I do count myself along with the protectors of my companions.»
Habib was amongst the elite followers of Imam Al-Hussain Q. He counted amongst the last seventy partisans of Imam Al-Hussain Q, and he was amongst those who faced mountains of heavy weapons and stopped spears with their chests as well as getting swords on their faces, while safety and money were offered to them, provided they abandon Imam Al Hussain Q but they rejected such offer and said: 
«We have no alibi to give the Prophet of Allah P if Imam Hussain Q is killed, while our eyes are still open». Yet, they remained until they were all murdered around him. 

[1] In the Book entitled « Sorrow Stimulus » it is said: « While accepted by you, who drink Alcohol!


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 When Habib Bin Mouthaher was killed, Al-Hurr started fighting as a marcher. He attacked the enemy, together with Zouheir Bin Al Quayn.


They adopted reciprocal support, thus if one of them attacked and was endangered, the other attacks too, and saves his companion. They kept this situation for one hour of time. 
While all people were fighting against each other, Al-Hurr was leading the attack; yet, Yazeed Bin Sufyan came forward to fight him, but it was not long till Al-Hurr killed him. 
Then he went on bravely, fighting them with his sword. However, they gathered against him and managed to kill him may Allah be pleased with Him. His friends carried him and placed him in front of Imam Al-Hussain Q while still breathing; Imam Al-Hussain Q started wiping his face while saying:
«Indeed, you are the Free Man, as named by your mother. You are free in this worldly life and in the Hereafter».
Imam Al-Hussain Q then led the mid-day prayer amongst his friends.
While praying, an arrow approached Imam Al-Hussain Q, but Saeid Bin Abdullah Al-Hanafi stood in front of him, protecting the Imam Q with his body, standing there still, until he fell down saying: 
«O Allah, do curse them just like you cursed the people of Aad and Thamood, O Allah! Pass my best regards to your Prophet, and inform Him of the pain I tolerate, wanting nothing but your reward for supporting your Prophet’s Pedigree».
Then he turned to Imam Al-Hussain Q and asked him:


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 «Did I keep my promise, dear son of Allah’s Prophet?»


Imam Al Hussain Q said: «Yes, and you’ll be before me in Heaven!»
Afterwards, he passed away, may Allah be pleased with him. They found that his body was pierced by thirteen arrows, notwithstanding the swords’ strokes and spears’ stabs. 
The Second Raid:
Then, Imam Al-Hussain Q said to the rest of his companions:
«Noble People, right now, Heaven has opened its doors, its rivers met with each other and its fruits are ripe. This is Allah’s Prophet P and the martyrs, killed for the sake of Allah, are expecting your arrival happily. Do defend Allah and his Prophet’s religion and protect the sanctity of Allah’s Prophet»
Just then, the companions of Imam Al-Hussain Q hastened to the battle field not caring for their lives, wanting to be killed for the Imam’s sake. They were as it was said about them: 
A group of people, if called to thrust a calamity
While horses swinging stamped or amassed
Putting their hearts before their shields as if,
They were hastening to their death, as Martyrs.
Each one, amongst those who wanted to fight, used to come first to Imam Al-Hussain Q to say goodbye and salute him by saying: «Peace Be Upon You, Dear Son of Allah’s Prophet».
And Imam Al-Hussain Q did answer:


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 «And upon you is Peace. We shall be following you. The Imam Q used to add: «… Some of them have fulfilled their obligation, and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed…» (Al-Ahzab, 23)


I deliver the Sacrifices for Allah,
While being massacred near the Furat 
The best gift is when the sacrifice for Guidance,
Are the Guiders themselves.
As soon as they finished performing their prayers,
They proceeded to die for the sake of the prayer.
The sublime companion of the Prophet, Anas Bin Al Harith Alkahely, a rather old man, asked for the permission of Imam Al-Hussain Q to fight, Imam Al Hussain gave him the permission. The old man came to the battle field while strengthening his waist with the turban and lifting up his brows with a band, due to his old age, and when Imam Al-Hussain Q saw him in this shape, his tears ran down and he said to him: 
«May Allah grant his thanks to you, O old man!»
This Prophet’s companion was amongst those who were blessed by listening to the saying of Allah’s Prophet P, talking about the martyrdom of Imam Al- Hussain Q, and encouraging the people to support him. The old man, May Allah be pleased with him, fought as a hero, until winning martyrdom.
Afterwards Zouheir Bin Al-Quayn came forward, and he had joined Imam Al-Hussain Q due to what he heard of the respectful companion of the Prophet, Selman Al Farisi, about 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 Karbala. He asked for permission to fight. He put his hand on Al-Hussain’s Q shoulder, and said:


Proceed, O Imam, we shall defend you,
You are the Leader, who are guided by Allah 
Today we shall meet your Grandfather, the Prophet,
As well as Al-Hassan, and Al-Murtada Ali,
Along with the brave knight with two wings (Jaafar),
And Allah’s Lion the Alive Martyr (Hamza) 
Afterwards, he started to fight, while reciting: 
Zouheir Ibn Al-Quayn is my Name 
Fighting you, with my sword, protecting Hussain
His fight was unique, never seen nor heard something like it; he attacked the enemy while saying: 
Hussain is one of the two Holy Grandsons
The Pedigree of the pious, honor, and devout
I do fight you with no regrets, or feel of shame
I could care less if my body is divided in halves
Then he fought with fierce, till he obtained martyrdom, May Allah’s Mercy be upon him.
Then, Imam Al-Hussain Q said:
«May Allah keep you close to us, O Zouheir, and May He Curse those who killed you!»
Bourayr Bin Khudayr Al-Hamadani was one of the closet 


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 people to Imam Ali Q. He was an ascetic praying man, counting amongst the leading scholars. He composed a book about Imam Ali Q.


He headed from Kufa to Mecca to join Imam Al-Hussain Q. Yet, he entered the battle field saying: 
«Come close to me, you Murderers of the believers, Come to me, you killers of children of the people who fought in Badr, Come to me you murderers of the sons of the Prophet and  extinguishers of his remaining Pedigree.»
He kept on fighting until he was killed as a martyr, may Allah be pleased with him.
The battle and fight became very severe, many were killed and numerous were amongst Abu Abdullah Al-Hussain’s Q friends and partisans.
Hanthala Bin Saad Al Shibani came forward, authorized by Imam Al-Hussain Q and spoke to the people of Kufa:
«People, I fear to you a destiny such as «Al-Ahzab» day. People, how scared I am for you on the Resurrection day, People don’t kill Al-Hussain Q, as if you do, Allah will inflict you with torment, and those who start the oppression will sure face failure.»
Afterwards, he fought until he became a martyr, may Allah be pleased with him. 
He was followed by Shouthab, Shaker’s servant, who said: 
«Allah’s Peace and mercy be upon You, Abu Abdullah, Fair well to you, I leave you between Allah’s hands and subject to his protection»
Then, he fought until being killed (May Allah’s Mercy be upon him)



Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 Afterwards, Abs Bin Abi Shebib Al-Shakery came forward; he greeted Imam Al-Hussain Q and said:


«Abu Abdullah, by Allah, there is no one on this earth, close or far, being dearer to me or more loved than you. If I was able to relieve and spare you any injustice or murder, by sacrificing anything other than myself and my blood, I would have gladly done so for your sake. Peace be upon you, O Abu Abdullah, I do testify that I follow both yours and your father’s guidance.»
He then brandished his sword and attacked the enemy. He didn’t spare any drop of his blood until being martyred, may Allah’s Mercy be upon him.
I love those who pay to meet Al-Hussain,
With the sacrifice of their souls and spirits
They stood to prevent swords and passing arrows,
From reaching him, just like ghosts
Protecting him from words, with their white necks,
And from arrows, with their smiling faces
They realized by Hussain, the most important Eid,
They became, In the Day of Minna of Al- Taf, Sacrifices
The Demise of Ali Al-Akbar Q:
When Al-Hussain Q lost all his men, except for his immediate family, Ali Al-Akbar, the son of Imam Al-Hussain Q came forward. He was one of the most beautiful people with the best ethics. He asked for his father’s permission to fight, and his father accepted. Yet, Imam Al Hussain looked at 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 him desperately and let his tears run on his face while his heart was in flame. As he exposed his sorrow to God, the Glory, he lifted up his two index fingers towards the sky and said:


«O Allah! Be observant of these people. As they are fighting against the one who most resembles your Prophet P. He inherited his physical, moral and logical characteristics. Thus, we used to look at him if we missed your Prophet and wanted be see Him. O Allah, do deprive them of the earth abundances, afflict them with absolute disunion and the worst segregation, make them follow different tribes and parties, and do not let the rulers ever be pleased with them, as they called us and promised support, but they turned to fight us wanting to kill us!»
Then, he Q called Ibn Saad and said:
«What’s wrong with you, Ibn Saad? May Allah cut off your pedigree as you did with mine, denying my kinship to the Prophet of Allah».
Afterwards Imam Al-Hussain Q spoke loudly and recited the verse of the Almighty:
 «Allah Chose Adam, Nuh (Noah), the family Of Ibrahim (Abraham) and the family of Imran above the Alamin (Mankind and Jinn (of their times) offspring, one of the other, and Allah is all Hearer, all Knower.» Al-Imran (34-35)
Afterwards, Ali Bin Al-Hussain Q attacked the enemy, while saying:
I’m Ali Bin Al-Hussain, the son of Ali
We and Allah’s House are closer to the Prophet 
By Allah, a hypocrite shall never be our ruler


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 I shall stab you with my spear till it bends

Distressing you with my sword, defending my Father
The way a true young man from Hashim shall be.
He remained fighting, until people started to clamor due to the large number of their lost members.
Afterwards he came back to his father, full of injuries and wounds and said:
«Father, thirst is killing me, the weight of the armor is exhausting me, isn’t there any way to a sip of water, to strengthen me against the enemy?»
Imam Al-Hussain Q cried and said:
«Sonny, it is hard for Mohammad, Ali and your father, to hear you plea while being unable to answer you, and to know you are urging for their help, while they are unable to help you…»
Then, He Q gave his ring to his son and said:
«Put this ring in your mouth, and go back to fighting your enemy; I hope it won’t be long until your Grandfather gives you a drink with his best glass, after which you shall never be thirsty again»
Ali Al-Akbar Q went back to the battle field, wherein he revealed a unique great fighting. But, Morra Bin Mounkith intercepted him with a stab that knocked him down. Then, the troops surrounded him, and cut him off with their swords. Here he called as loud as he could:
«O Father, Here is My Grand Father, the Messenger of Allah P and he has given me a drink with his best glass after 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 which I shall never feel thirsty. He P tells you to hasten, as there is a glass saved just for you!»


Here, Imam Al-Hussain Q shouted: «Alas, my poor son»
Imam Al-Hussain Q ran to his son. All his way long, Imam Al-Hussain Q was mentioning him and murmuring: 
«My son Ali… my son Ali»
He kept saying that until he reached him, he jumped down off his horse and threw himself on his son’s body. He Q held his son’s head and put it on his lap. He Q started wiping blood and dirt off Al-Akbar’s face. He turned to him placing his holy cheek on his son’s while saying: 
«May Allah kill the people who killed you son! How daring they are towards Allah and for violating the sanctity of Allah’s Prophet P.»
His eyes were flooded with running tears, and said:
«Life is meaningless after your departure» 
Then Zeinab Bint Ali > rushed out, followed by women and children, while she was shouting:
«Alas, my beloved Boy, Alas dear Piece of My Heart, Alas My Son, Alas my heart’s beats!»
When she arrived, she threw herself unto him reviving Imam Al-Hussain’s Q tears and he said:
«To Allah we belong and to him we shall return…»
He held her hand and accompanied her back to the canopy. Then He Q asked his young supporters amongst the Hashims:


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 «Do carry your brother and bring him.» They brought him back from the place where he was killed and put him inside the canopy that they were fighting in front of.


The Fight of the Family of Aqeel Q
Afterwards, it was the turn of the sons of Aqeel Bin Abi Taleb, as well as the sons of Muslim and Jaafar Bin Aqeel, who all fought bravely, while Imam Al-Hussain Q was telling them:
«Be Patient with death, dear cousins, May you witness no disgrace after this day!»
Thus, they went fighting as heroes, defending their cousin, the son of Allah’s Prophet P until they all died as martyrs, may Allah have mercy on them.
Al-Qassim Bin Al-Hassan Q:
Al-Qassim Bin Imam Al-Hassan Q came to his uncle asking his permission to fight, as if Imam Al-Hassan Q didn’t accept but to be present in Karbala by five of his sons, since He is the one who said:
«There isn’t any day like Yours, Abu Abdullah.»
Al-Qassim went out to the battlefield while reciting:
If you don’t know me, I’m the son of Al-Hassan
He is the grandson of the entrusted selected Prophet
This is Hussain as an awaiting Prisoner 
Amongst People, who shall be deprived of the cloud’s rain.
While He was roaming the battle field with his sword, his 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 shoes’ straps cut off and the boy bent to fix it. He who witnessed the scene said: Amro Bin Saad Bin Nafil Al-Azdi told me: «By Allah, I shall attack and kill him.» I told him: «Glory is to Allah! And why do you want to do so? These people who had surrounded him shall kill him instead.» But he said: «By Allah I shall attack him.» He did not rest until he went and hit the boy’s head with the sword. The boy then fell down on his face and said:


«O Uncle!»
Imam Al-Hussain Q rushed to the young man, as if He was a hawk. Dust flew away just to reveal Imam Al-Hussain Q standing at the Boy’s head, while he was still kicking with his feet. Thus Imam Al-Hussain Q said:
«Woe unto those people who killed you. As their rival on the resurrection day shall be your Grandfather!»
Then He said:
«It is, By Allah, painful to your uncle, to call him and not answer you, or if he answers, he does not benefit you. He is by Allah, a person whose enemies are a lot and rare are his supporters.»
A relater said: Afterwards, Imam Al-Hussain held him, and it looked to me as if the boy’s feet were hitting the ground, while his uncle Imam Al-Hussain Q has put Al-Qassim’s chest against his Q.
The narrator said: «I wondered what he was going to do with him.» He carried him until extending him near his son Ali Bin Al-Hussain in addition to the bodies of those killed amongst his family members. I asked about the boy and I was told, he was Al-Qassim Bin Al-Hassan Bin Ali Bin Abi Taleb.»


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 It is said that the Martyrs in Karbala of the sons of Imam Al-Hassan Q were three other than Al-Qassim. The fifth one got injured and his hand was amputated; he was Hassan Al-Mouthanna (May Allah Bless them All)


What are the sins that
The members of the house of the Prophet commit?!
So that they are all killed, emptying his home of them
They left them scattered, Dead in the utmost tragic way
The Fighting of the Brothers of Al Abbas Q
Abou El-Fadle Al Abbas Q spoke to his direct brothers, whose mother is Om Al-Baneen and father is Ali Bin Abi Taleb, they were: Abdullah, Jaafar and Othman, who was named after the sublime companion of the Prophet Othman Bin Mathoun:
«Come forward till I see you having delivered the advice of Allah and his Prophet. Go forward; you worthier to me than my own soul. Do protect your Master until you get killed in his defense.»
They all went to the battle field marching before Imam Al-Hussain Q and protecting him with their faces, chests and throats. The first one who went to fight was Abdullah Bin Ali, the Prince of Believers. He fought courageously until being killed as a Martyr. Jaafar then Othman acted alike their brother. They fought so bravely until getting murdered, May Allah be pleased with them all.
The Martyrdom of Al-Abbas Q:
The relater said: Al-Abbas Bin Ali remained beside Imam Al-Hussain Q fighting and protecting him. He used to follow him in each and every move.


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 He was his protector as were his Grand Father, Abu Taleb, and His Father Ali for the Prophet P.


Similarly to Quraish offering safety to Abu Taleb, provided that he abandons Mohammad, Al-Mustafa P, Shamer Bin Zi Al Jawshan, sent by Ibn Ziad, also offered safety to Al-Abbas and his brothers on the ninth day of Mouharram, provided they leave Imam Al-Hussain Q. They unanimously answered:
«May Allah damn you as well as your safety; you want to give us safety, while you deprive the son of Allah’s Prophet of it?»
Al-Abbas Q was known as «The water Provider» in Karbala due to his repeated visits to the water springs to bring water to the camp of the Master of Martyrs Q. Yet, on the tenth day of Mouharram, Abu El-Fadle Q heard the children’s calling:
«Thirst, Thirst!»
Thus, he went out seeking after water to provide it to them
Abbas, you sacrificed a priceless soul
To support Hussain in an Heroic Unique Manner
You are the Brother of the two Prophet’s sons
On the Prideful days
While you are Abu El-Fadle (the father of merits)
On the Water Striving Day
When Abu El-Fadle Q headed to the water spring, the enemy attacked him. He countered their attack, till he cleared them off and said:


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 I do not fear death, even if it screams loud at me,


I am ready to fight till I meet the destiny of the brave men
My soul is vowed to protect
The pure soul of the Selected Prophet (Al-Hussain)
Indeed, I am Al-Abbas, running for water
Surely not fearing evil on the day we meet.
Another saying:
He flipped the right of the enemy troops on its left
Then, he dived in collecting souls and breaking hearts
Any one dared to attack him, with his first
His head will be the first to run away by his word.
He is hero, who inherited courage from his father
With his courage, he shall shove the noses of the traitors in the floor
Do the Fawatim (children of Fatima) complain of thirst?
While he has Al Furat in front of him
In his left hand he carries the bottles, and
In his right hand holds the drawn sharp sword
He Q went on clearing the soldiers and separating their troops. When they realized he was fighting like his father, and how much they were suffering of his Haidaric strength and what his arm did to them, they were overwhelmed with the inability to confront Abu El Fadle Q they opted to stratagem and deceit. 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 Thus Zaid Bin Warqaa’a Al-Juhani hid behind a palm tree waiting for him. He was aided by Hakeem Bin Tufayl Assansabi, who hit the right hand of Abu El Fadle and cut it. Abu El Fadle Q simply held the sword with his left hand and hugged the flag to his chest, attacking them while saying:


By Allah, if you cut my right hand
I shall forever defend my religion,
As well as a true hearted Imam
Son of the pure honest Prophet
He Q fought until becoming too tired, by now, the enemy’s main concern was to get rid of his left hand that was dicing them right and left as if it was his right hand. Nevertheless, the same stratagem of perfidy was applied, as Al-Hakam Bin Al-Toufayl Al-Taei lied in waiting behind a palm tree and managed to hit and cut his left hand.
Just then, Abu El Fadle realized that the time to meet the Beloved Prophet had come; he Q went on saying:
My soul don’t be afraid of the disbelievers
Be cheerful about the Almighty mercy
Along the Prophet, the Chosen amongst Masters
They have cut my left arm with their perfidy
O Allah Do let them burn with the blazing fire of Hell
A bad man hit him with a metallic shaft, and Abu El Fadle seemed at that moment as if he was saying: 
 «My Dear Brother Abu Abdullah; You have my Best regards and Peace»


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura



Al-Hussain walked to his demise place
While having one eye on the tents and the other on him
He found his dear brother subject to demise
While his good looking face as a moon wearing a Veil of blood
He threw himself on his body
His tears colored the Earth as if it was the blood of both brothers
He wanted to kiss him farewell, but didn’t find a place
That was not blooded by the hits of swords, for him to kiss.
When Imam Al-Hussain Q saw him knocked down at the Furat bank, he cried with a broken heart and went on saying:
You indeed went far; you worst people, with what you did,
You infringed the recommendation of Prophet Mohammad.
Wasn’t Al Zahra’a, my mother, enough for you to hinder your acts?
Aren’t we the pedigree of Mohammad, the Prophet?
It is also said that Imam Al-Hussain Q reached Abu El Fadle Al–Abbas Q while he was still breathing. The Imam Q held his Holy head and rested it on his lap. He started wiping blood and dirt of his face. Then, his crying was loud, while saying: 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 «Now my back got broken, with little I can do, while my enemies are rejoicing at my misfortune.»


Afterwards, he bent down to embrace him; He started kissing the emplacements of the swords’ strikes in his face, throat and chest.
Imam Al-Hussain Q left his Brother Al-Abbas at the place where he was killed. He stood up after his brother’s noble soul passed away. Yet, he didn’t carry him to the big tent, where he had put all the other martyrs of his family and companions.
The Demise of Imam Al-Hussain Q:
When Imam Al-Hussain Q saw his relatives and beloved ones’ death, he decided to face the enemy with his bare heart, and he called:
«Isn’t there anyone to protect the sanctity of Allah’s Prophet? Isn’t there any true believer who might fear Allah’s punishment if he hurts us? Isn’t there any helper who pleas for God’s mercy, by rescuing us? Isn’t there any supporter who wants what Allah’s Promised, so he would support us?»
Just then, the lamentation of the women became louder, He Q headed to the tent and addressed to Zeinab O:
«Bring me my little Baby Boy, I want to say goodbye to him»
He held the Baby boy in his arms, while he was leaning to kiss him; Harmala Bin Al-Aqeel Al Assadi shot the boy with an arrow that went through his throat.
The Imam Q said to Zeinab O: «Take him»
He Q received his baby’s blood in both his hands until becoming full, and he threw it towards the sky, while saying:


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 «What eased my affliction is that it is within Allah’s sight!»


Imam Al-Baqer, Q, said:
«Indeed, no drop of such blood fell on the floor»
Afterwards, Al-Hussain Q called the people to fight him. Then, he went on defeating and killing every challenging man, until he killed a great number of them, while saying: 
«Getting killed is better than committing a shameful act, 
And what you might see as shame to me is better than going to Hell»
Some of the tellers said: «By Allah, I have never seen a bereaved man, who witnessed the murder of his own sons, his direct next of kin, and his companions, while remaining so courageous. If men were to attack him, he would counter their attack with his sword, defeat them while they were frightened just like a herd of goats would do when attacked by a wolf. He was attacking them, while they were more than thirty thousand, and they would start fleeing just like scattered mosquitoes. Afterwards he used to retreat to his initial spot while saying:
«There is neither power, nor force unless By Allah»
When Shamer Bin Zi Al Jawshan saw such fact, he called the knights to support the infantry men. He ordered the archers to shoot at Imam Al-Hussain Q. They obeyed and started shooting at him until his body became full of arrows, and he became like a hedgehog. Thus Imam Al-Hussain Q had to abstain from attacking them and they stood facing him.
The teller says: Imam Al – Hussain Q kept on fighting them until they separated him from his camp. Thus, he Q shouted:


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 «Woe unto you, horde of Abi Sufyan. If you are free of any religion, while not fearing the day of resurrection, at least act like free men in your worldly life; go back to your past traditions, if you were Arabs as you claim!»


Shamer, then, called him: «Son of Fatima, what are you saying?»
Imam Al-Hussain Q said:
«We are fighting each other, while women are not involved in this fight, so stop your insolents, ignorants and tyrants, from attacking my women, as long as I’m alive»
Shamer said:  «We grant you that, Son of Fatima.»
Accordingly, they kept on fighting only him and he was fighting them back as he was searching for any drop of water with no use.  When he Q received seventy two wounds, he stopped to rest for a moment, feeling feeble and unable to fight anymore. While he Q was still standing, he received a stone in his holy forehead. He held a piece of his clothes to wipe the blood off his forehead, but a poisoned three sectioned arrow hit his heart. 
He Q said: 
«In the Name of Allah, and By Allah, and I shall die while still following the religion of Allah’s Prophet Religion.»
Afterwards, Imam Al-Hussain Q lifted up his head towards the sky and said:
«My God, you are aware that they are murdering a man, who there isn’t any other one on this earth but him, a son of a Prophet’s daughter».
Then he pulled out the arrow off from his back. Blood 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 started to gush as if it was a water spout. He became too weak to fight so he stopped, and whenever a man tried to approach him to kill him, he would renounce, fearing to face Allah while having killed Al-Hussain Q.


They kept on doing so, until a man of the tribe of Kinda named Malik Bin Annisr approached him. He insulted Imam Al-Hussain Q and hit his noble head with the sword cutting off the burnoose which got full of blood, reaching thus his head with wounds. 
The narrator said: Imam Al-Hussain Q called for a piece of fabric to wrap his head; He as well asked for a small hat, He put it on before his turban.
The enemy troops waited for a while then resumed their fight and surrounded him. At that moment, 
Abdullah Bin Al-Hassan Bin Ali Q came out. He was still a boy, who didn’t reach puberty and was staying with the women. He ran quickly until he stood near Imam Al-Hussain Q. Zeinab, his aunt O, followed him, wanting to get him back to the tent but he strongly refused and said:
«No, By Allah, I shall never leave my uncle.»
At that time, it is said that either Bakr Bin Kaab or Harmala Bin Kahel tried to strike Imam Al-Hussain Q with his sword, but the boy saw him and said:
«Woe unto you, son of a bad mother, do you want to kill my uncle?»
The man hit the boy with the sword. The boy received it with his hand, so it was cut while still hanging by the skin only. The boy shouted then:


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 «Oh Mother!»


Imam Al-Hussain Q hugged him and said: «Dear nephew, be patient with your distress and expect goodness to come out of it, because Allah shall make you follow your good ancestors!»
The teller said that Harmala Bin Kahil threw him with an arrow and cut his throat, while he was still in the lap of his uncle, Imam Al-Hussain Q
Afterwards, Shamer Bin Zi Al-Jawshan attacked the canopy of Imam Al-Hussain Q, stabbing it with a spear, then he said: «Get me fire, I want to set it up and burn the tent with all who are inside!»
Imam Al-Hussain Q said: «Son of Zi Al-Jawshan, you are calling for fire to burn my family, May Allah burn you in Hell!»
The teller says: When Imam Al–Hussain Q became so weakened due to the many wounds (…) Saleh Bin Wahab Al Mari stabbed him on his flank, thus Imam Al-Hussain Q fell down the floor on his right cheek, while saying:
«In the Name of Allah, and By Allah, and I shall die while still following the religion of Allah’s Prophet Religion.»
Then, they attacked him from all sides, and Zara’a Bin Sharik managed to hit the left shoulder of Imam Al-Hussain Q, the Imam Q hit Zara’a and killed him. Some other man hit his shoulder and thus the Imam Q fell down on his face. He was extremely tired, so he collapsed, thus Sinan Bin Anas Annakhi’i hit his chest. Then, the criminal took off the spear to stab the Imam Q all over his holy chest, then Sinan shot him with an arrow that hit his neck, so he Q fell down sitting. 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 He Q took the arrow out of his neck and joined his two holy hands to receive his blood. Each and every time his hands would get full of blood he used to imbue his holy head and beard while saying:


«This is how I meet Allah covered with my own blood, while my right is violated.»
Another story about Imam Al-Hussain Q tells that he said:
«O Allah, Having the high position, who have the great might, and the strong power, who does not need his creatures, He is with the utmost pride, whose Mercy is close, and Promise is fulfilled, You are the divider of sustenance, the goodness provider, You are close when called upon, knowing everything about your creatures, accepting repentance of those regretting and coming back to you, capable to do what you want, knowing what you asked, You are thankful, when you are praised, always remember those who remember you, I’m calling you, because I need you and desire to be near you, I come to you in humbleness. I come to you in deep fear, I cry my sorrow, and I call for your assistance, from the depth of my feebleness and rely on you, since your help is sufficient to me.
O Allah, Be the Judge between us and our people. Indeed, they deceived us and let us down. They betrayed and killed us, while we are the Family of your Prophet, and we are the descendants of your beloved Mohammad, whom you preferred and selected to deliver your message, and you entrusted him with the revelation. We do ask you to help us and provide us with a good way out, indeed, You are the Most Merciful.
We ask you to grant us patience to face your destiny, O my Lord! There is no God but You, You are the Rescuer of those calling for your help, There is no God to worship other 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 than you, grant me patience to tolerate your ruling, you are the Helper of he who doesn’t have anyone to assist him, You are the immortal with the endless power, You are the one who resurrect and raise from the death, You are the one who is aware of each and every soul and what it earns, Do judge between me and them, you are the Best of Rulers». 


One of the «Sira» bibliography tellers said:
I was standing with the allies of Omar Bin Saad, when someone shouted:
«Be Cheerful Chief, this is Shamer and he killed Imam Al-Hussain Q He added: I went out between the two camps and stood beneath the Imam Q while he was generously scarifying himself, By Allah I have never seen a murdered person, covered with his blood who could look better than him or have a better looking or more shining face than His Q. The glow of his face and the beauty of his state, all prevented me from the thought of killing him. He Q asked, while being in this state, for water to drink, but I heard a man saying: «By Allah, you will not taste the water till you reach Hell, where you shall drink of its boiling fire.»
However, he heard him saying: 
«Woe unto you, I shall neither go to hell, nor drink of its boiling fire; Instead I shall go to my Grandfather, the Messenger of Allah P. 
I shall be with him in his high ranked Heaven House, sitting under the wings of the Most Powerful King, drinking pure water, and complaining to him about what you have committed against me and did to me.»
The teller continues: They all got furious, as if Allah did not leave any drop of mercy in the heart of any of them. 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 Shamer sat on Imam Al-Hussain’s Q chest. He grasped his holy beard and hit him with his sword twelve times, to end up cutting his great sacred head.


Afterwards, Omar Bin Saad called amongst his allies, asking them for volunteers to ride their horses and stomp on the chest and back of the Imam Q. He selected ten amongst them and they tumbled with their horses hooves on his chest and back till they broke his bones.
What a Martyr the sun burned his body
While it is because of him, the sun was originally born.
What a slaughtered man, whom horses tumbled on his     chest
While their knights wanted glory from mentioning his name.
Didn’t they know that the soul of Mohammad
As well as his Qur’an are embodied in his grandson
If said horses knew, as their owners, that
The one they stepped on is indeed, Ahmad
At that Moment, Our Lady Zeinab O went out, mourning Imam Al-Hussain Q, calling with a sad voice and a broken heart:
«Alas Mohammad, May the King of Heavens bless you, this is Hussain, covered with blood and dirt, while his body parts are cut off, and your daughters are now captives. I do complain to Allah, to Mohammad Al-Mustafa, to Ali Al-Murtada, to Fatima Al Zahra’a and to Hamza the Master of Martyrs. Alas Mohammad this is Hussain thrown on the desert land, in the 


Chapter Five: The Day of Ashura

 hot wind. He is murdered by the sons of wrong doers.  Alas how sad and distressed I am: Today My Grandfather, Allah’s Prophet P, died.  O Mohammad’s companions, here are the Pedigrees of Al-Mustafa treated like captives»


And in another narration, she O said:
«Alas Mohammad, your daughters are captivated, your descendants are killed, left alone under the bad, hot wind. This is Hussain with his head cut from the back, his turban and clothes are stolen; O I do complain to my father about the one whom all his troops on Monday became dead, whom his large tent is torn and burned, who is not absent to be waited for, nor wounded to be cured; whom I like to sacrifice myself for him, who was distressed until he died, who was thirsty till he passed away, whose white hair is dripping blood, whose grandfather is Mohammad Al-Mustafa, (being the Messenger of the God of the skies), who is the grandson of the Guidance Prophet, He is Mohammad Al-Mustapha, He is Khadija AL Kubra, He is Ali Al-Murtada, He is Fatima Al Zahra’a (the Lady of all the Women in the world), he is the son of whom the sun came back and he prayed!»
Thus, By Allah, she made each one cry whether he was an enemy or a friend.
O Imam Mahdi, Hasten to help us as,
Our life is not happy and living is not worthy any more
Do Rise, as we shall sacrifice for you,
The remaining of souls got tired of patience
Our waiting nights are so long, So O son of Al-Zaki (Imam Hassan)
Is there a tomorrow for the night of waiting?

The Journey of Martyrdom